a-bound', a-bun'-dans, a-bun'-dant, a-bun'-dant-li: These words represent in the English Versions of the Bible a considerable variety of different words in the Hebrew and Greek original. In the Old Testament they most frequently stand for some form of the stem rabh, signifying "to cast together," "to increase." In Pr 8:24 the primary idea is "to be heavy" (root: kabhadh); in De 33:19 and Job 22:11 it is "to overflow" shapha`; in Job 36:31 it is "to plait together," "to augment," "to multiply" (makhbir from ka- bhar); in Isa 47:9 it is "strength" `otsmah; in 1Ki 18:41 it is "tumult," "crowd" hamon; in Ec 5:12 it is "to fill to satiety" (Revised Version (British and American) "fulness"); in Isa 15:7 it is "excellence" yithrah and in Isa 66:11 "a full breast" ziz; in Jer 33:6 it is "copiousness" (`athereth from `athar). In several passages (e.g. Eze 16:49; Ps 105:30; Isa 56:12) the Revised Version (British and American) gives other and better renderings than the King James Version. In the New Testament perissos, perisseuo, perisseia, etc., are the usual words for "abundant," "abound," "abundance," etc. (the adjective signifies "exceeding some number or measure"). A slight formal difference of conception may be noted in pleonazo, which suggests that the abundance has resulted from augmentation. In Ro 5:20 the two words stand in the closest connection: `Where sin abounded (by its increase) grace abounded more exceedingly (was rich beyond measure).' In Mr 12:44; Lu 21:4; 2Co 8:20; 12:7; Re 18:3 the Revised Version (British and American) gives improved renderings instead of "abundance," and in Titus 3:6 and 2Pe 1:11 instead of "abundantly."

J. R. Van Pelt

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