By Charles H. Welch
House. As we are limited in this analysis
to dispensational matters, the home as a human dwelling cannot be considered,
but from three points of view the term house has a bearing upon dispensational
- We discover that the history of Israel is the history of God's house.
- The various words of which the word oikos
is the basis in the N.T. are of dispensational value.
- The abode of the redeemed in glory is connected with the same term.
Let us consider the teaching of the Scriptures under each of these headings.
The Divine survey of the history of the kings of Israel in relation to
the House of God, as indicated in the book of Chronicles.
Most readers are probably aware that the ground covered by Samuel and
the two books of Kings is traversed again in the two books of Chronicles.
Upon examination, however, we soon perceive that this is no mere repetition.
The essential fact about the books of Chronicles is that they view history
from the Divine standpoint. To
be convinced of this, one must investigate for oneself, but the earnest
student will find a good deal of spadework already done for him by Girdlestone,
in his Deuterographs, a book still
obtainable at second-hand. Appendix
56 of The Companion Bible also supplies the parallel references, without
the actual text. As an example, let us take the record of Saul's death
as given in 1 Samuel thirty-one, and compare it with 1 Chronicles ten.
The reader will notice minor differences in the two records, but none
of these would seem to justify the time and space of re-writing. At 1
Chronicles 10:13,14, however, we find a definite addition, the Divine
comment upon the factual history recorded in 1 Samuel thirty-one:
"So Saul died for his trespass which he committed against the Lord,
because of the word of the Lord, which he kept not; and also for that
he asked counsel of one that had a familiar spirit, to inquire thereby,
and inquired not of the Lord: therefore He slew him, and turned the
Kingdom unto David the son of Jesse (1 Chrono 10:13,14 R.V.).
The books of Samuel and 1 and 2 Kings view history from the human standpoint,
whereas the same events are shown in 1 and 2 Chronicles as they appear
from the Divine standpoint.
"In the former books we have three chapters
(or 88 verses) given to the secular
events of Hezekiah's reign (2 Kings 18; 19, 20), and only three
verses (2 Kings 18:4-6) given to his great religious reformation. In
Chronicles this is exactly reversed.
Three chapters (or 84 verses) are devoted to his reformation
(2 Chrono 29, 30, 31), while one
chapter (or 32 verses) suffices for the secular events of his reign"
(Appendix 56, The Companion
Here, then, is material to our hand. All we need is diligence, patience,
the gift of some key-thought, and the record will unfold itself. For this
we prayed, and waited, and at length we were led to discover that Israel's
history is to be understood dispensationally in
the light of their attitude to the house of God. We noted down
every king that had anything to do with the Temple, either for good or
ill, and to our amazement the notes took shape until we were able to perceive,
however dimly, the onward movement of something greater than human action
or design. The record is written round the lives of sixteen kings, of
which three were Gentiles: Shishak, king of Egypt; Nebuchadnezzar, king
of Babylon; and Cyrus, king of Persia. This leaves the number of Israel's
kings as 13, an ominous number associated with rebellion (Gen. 14:4),
fleshly failure (Gen. 17:25), self (1 Kings 7:1), and Satan (Rev. 12:9).
The thirteenth king of Judah was Ahaz, who was, as we shall see, a type
Before we can go further it will be necessary for us to acquaint ourselves
with the way in which Chronicles associates the history of Israel with
the house of God. This can be done by each reader for himself by patiently
reading through the record and noting each occurrence. The following is
the structure obtained:
The Kingdom of Priests
The history of Israel
is the history of the House of God
1 Chrono 28-29. DAVID.
||Command to build (10).
The Lord be with thee (20)
2 Chron. 2-11.
| Determines (2:1).
Threat (7: 19-22).
2 Chrono 12. SHISHAK.
|| Deliverance granted
Treasures taken to Egypt (9)
2 Chrono 13. ABIJAH.
|| Keeps to Levitical
2 Chrono 15,16
Brought in dedicated
ASA. Brought out silver
gold (bad) (16:2)
2 Chrono 20.
not afraid (15).
is not yours (15).
|G 2 Chrono 22.
2 Chrono 23.
| King brought (20)
2 Chrono 24.
| Repaired (4).
Levites gathered (5)
JOASH. Set house
his state (13)
2 Chr 24.
2 Chr 25.
2 Chr 26.
2 Chr 27.
2 Chr 28.
|G 2 Chrono 28.
|Shut up (24)
2 Chrono 29.
| Doors opened (3)
2 Chrono 29.
| Cleansed (15).
Levites gathered (12-15)
2 Chrono 29
in order (35)
2 Chro 30.
2 Chrono 32.
not afraid (7).
us . . the lord. .
on words (8).
off. . slew (21)
2 Chron. 33
altars (bad) (4.5)
altars (good) (15,16)
2 Chrono 34. JOSIAH
|| Restore to Levitical
2 Chrono 36.
| No remedy (16).
Vessels to Babylon (7)
2 Chrono 36.
| Burnt (19).
Threat fulfilled (21)
2 Chrono 36. CYRUS.
||Charge to build.
The Lord be with him (22.23).
In 1 Chronicles twenty-eight we find David expressing the desire of his
heart to build the house of God, but, bowing to the Divine will, he urges
his son Solomon to build it, saying: "Be strong and do it" (1 Chrono 28:1-10).
David does not leave the matter there, however. He provides "the pattern"
which he says that he had had "by the Spirit" and in "writing by His hand
upon me" (1 Chrono 28:11,12,19), and he also supplies abundant material.
"Now I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the
gold for the things of gold. . . silver . . . brass. . . in abundance.
Moreover, because I have set my affection to the house of my God, I
have of mine own proper good, of gold and silver . . . given . . . Who
then is willing to consecrate his service this day unto the Lord?" (1
With such an example and such an appeal, there was a great response,
and we read that "the people rejoiced and offered themselves willingly".
David, however, recognizes in prayer that
"All this store that we have prepared to build Thee an house for Thine
holy name cometh of Thine hand, and is all Thine own" (1 Chrono 29:16).
In verse 22 we read: "And they made Solomon the son of David king the
second time" - a phrase that reminds us of the coming of Christ
"the second time" to put forth His great power and reign.
In 2 Chronicles 2:1 it is recorded that Solomon determined to build
a house for the name of the Lord, chapter 3 tells us when the work began,
chapter 5 that it was at length finished, and in chapter 6 we have its
dedication. In chapter 7:19-22 we have a warning which inc1udes the prophetic
"And this house, which is high, shall be an astonishment to every
one that passeth by it; so that he shall say, Why hath the Lord done
thus unto this land, and unto this house?"
It will be helpful, at this point, to look at the other end of the story.
In 2 Chronicles thirty-six the warning is fu1fi11ed, the house of God
is burnt with fire, and the people carried away captive:
"To fulfil the Word of the Lord by the mouth of Jeremiah, until the
land had enjoyed her sabbaths: for as long as she lay desolate she kept
sabbath, to fulfil three score and ten years" (2 Chrono 36:21).
The last item in the structure, and the last word of the book of Chronicles,
is one of restoration:
"Now in the first year of Cyrus king of Persia, that the word of the
Lord spoken by the mouth of Jeremiah might be accomplished, the Lord
stirred up the spirit of Cyrus king of Persia, that he made a proc1amation
throughout aH his kingdom, and put it also in writing, saying:
Thus saith Cyrus king of Persia, All the kingdoms of the earth hath
the Lord God of heaven given me; and He hath charged me to build Him
an house in Jerusalem, which is in Judah. Who is there among you of
aH His people? The Lord his God be with him, and let him go up" (2 Chrono
We ob serve that we have here the "charge to build", the put~ ting of
the proc1amation into "writing", and the prayer, "The Lord his God be
with him", all of which are reminiscent of the opening section in connexion
with David. It is good to "see the end from the beginning" and to know
by the prophetic word that, after many days of apostacy and rebellion,
the time of restitution will surely come. Returning to the beginning of
the record, we come next to the transgression of Rehoboam and the punishment
executed upon him by Shishak, king of Egypt, who carried away the treasures
of the house of the Lord. Rehoboam and his princes humbled themselves,
however, and the Lord granted "some deliverance", or "deliverance for
a little while". Rehoboam's attitude here is in strong contrast with that
described at the end of the book, where we read of the king and his associates
that, instead of humbling themselves and repenting-
"They mocked the messengers of God, and despised His . words, and
misused His prophets, until the wrath of the Lord arose against His
people, TILL THERE WAS NO REMEDY" (2 Chrono 36:16).
The acts of Abijah in chapter thirteen, and the acts of Josiah in chapter
thirty-four have this in common, that both kings were zealous in witnessing
against idolatry and in restoring the worship of God in accordance with
the law. Asa and Manasseh came next in the structure and provide a picture
of that mixture of good and bad that is often a link between the true
and the false. Jehoshaphat and Hezekiah are the next corresponding members
and form an obvious pair. In both cases we have the fear of an enemy,
an exhortation not to be afraid, the comforting thought that "the battle
is not yours, but God's"; and in both cases we have the destruction of
the enemy either by ambushments, by angelic ministry, or by patricidal
murder. All these items are indicated in the structure and should be checked.
We now come to the three central groups in the structure, that provide
types of both Christ and Antichrist. Athaliah and the destruction of the
seed royal are types of Satanic opposition to the purposes of God in Christ,
while the hiding of the infant king for six years, and his proc1amation
in the seventh, will need no explanation to those who are acquainted with
prophecy. Ahaz stands in line with Athaliah as a type of Antichrist, and
the "hiding" of the king's son is echoed by the "shutting up" of the doors
of the Lord's house. Hezekiah follows in much the same steps as Joash
in the c1eansing of the Temple, the gathering of the Levites, and the
setting in order of the Lord's house. All these points are noted in the
outline already given.
The four kings that come centrally in the structure are important because
of the way in which they indicate the various phases of Antichrist's rebellion
and opposition. It should be noted that the name of the evil king of Israel
here, is the same as that of the good king of Judah. This is a fruitful
cause of much evil. Satan's deception is carried out by means of travesty.
Let the reader compare, for example, the names of the descendants of Cain
given in Genesis 4:16-24, with those of the descendants of Adam given
in Genesis five. To make sure that there is no mistake in connexion with
Enoch, the Scriptures refer to him as the "seventh from Adam" (Jude 14),
for there was also a son of Cain who bore the same name. Uzziah also is
a type of Antichrist, for although at first all seemed well, we read later:
"He was marvellously helped, till he was strong. But when he was strong,
his heart was lifted up to his destruction; for he transgressed against
the Lord his God, and went into the temple of the Lord to bum incense
upon the altar of incense" (2 Chrono 26:15,16).
Uzziah was stricken with leprosy and remained a leper to the day of
his death, a dreadful picture of the usurper and his doom. Of Jotham it
is said that he followed his father in so far as he had done right in
the sight of the Lord, but he "entered not into the Temple". Ahaz completes
the evil triad (see structure). We read that he walked in the ways of
the kings of Israel and made molten images to Baalim. "Moreover he burnt
incense in the valley of the son of Hinnom, and burnt his children in
the fire, after the abominations of the heathen." In the same chapter
we read that a hundred and twenty thousand men of Judah were slain in
one day, "because they had forsaken the Lord God of their fathers" (2
Chrono 28:6), while Israel "carried away captive of their brethren two
hundred thousand, women, sons, and daughters, and took also away much
"And in the time of his distress did he trespass yet more against
the LORD; THIS IS THAT KING AHAZ" (2 Chrono 28:22).
Ahaz seems to be specially marked as a transgressor. He stands out in
strong contrast with Hezekiah, who is singled out for his good deeds (2
We would also remind the reader that the Lord Jesus Himself associated
the failure of Israel with the Temple in Matthew twenty-three:
"0 Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest
them which are sent unto thee, how of ten would I have gathered thy
children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings,
and ye would not! BEHOLD, YOUR HOUSE IS LEFT UNTO YOU DESOLATE. For
I say unto you, Ye shall not see Me henceforth, till ye shall say, Blessed
is He that cometh in the name of the Lord" (Matt. 23:37-39).
The Greek word oikos "house"
has a number of variants which must be noted. The English word home
is derived from the Greek kome,
translated village or town in the N.T. but never "home". There is no proper
word in either the O.T. nor the N.T. that is exactly equivalent to the
English word "home". We must therefore be prepared to find that the Greek
oikos includes a little more than
the English word "house". There are thirty-seven compounds of oikos
in the Greek N.T., and while there are too many references to transcribe
here, a specimen of each term used, and some idea of its meaning and the
bearing of the context may be of service to the student of dispensational
- Oikos, "house", 110 occurrences,
translated "home" four times, "house" 102 times, "household" three times,
and "temple" once. Oikos is used
of a dwelling (John 7:53), the family occupying the house, the household
(Acts 16:15, 1 Tim. 3:4); the temple (Matt. 21:13, 23:38), the ancestral
house or lineage, as for example, the house of David (Luke 1:27,33,
2:4); the redeemed viewed as a spiritual house (1 Pet. 2:5) and as a
body of believers (1 Pet. 4:17); the church too, as an assembly is called
a house (1 Tim. 3:15); finally, as in Hebrews 3:2-4, stewardship is
- Oikia, ninety-five occurrences,
translated "home" once; "house" ninety-three times; "household" once.
Dr. Bullinger distinguishes oikos
from oikia thus:
- oikos, a house, a dwelling,
with special reference to the inmates,
- oikia, a home, a dwelling,
as distinct from the inmates and
from all property left at a person' s death.
Specimen usages inc1ude the house built upon a rock (Matt. 7:24); the
house was filled with the odour(John 12:3); possessors of houses and
lands sold them (Acts 4:34); Caesar's household (Phil. 4:22).
- Oikiakos, "household", two
occurrences (Matt. 10:25,36).
- Oiketes, four occurrences.
A domestic servant. Translated "household servant" once (Acts 10:7)
and "servant" three times (Luke 16:13, Rom. 14:4, 1 Pet. 2:18), never
used without reference in the context to a master.
- Oikeo, to dwell, to inhabit.
The word occurs nine times, and is translated "dweIl" throughout (Rom.
7:17,18,20, 8:9,11, 1 Cor. 3:16, 7:12,13, 1 Tim. 6:16).
- Oikeios, three occurrences,
once "one's own house" (1 Tim. 5:8), and twice "household" (Gal. 6:10;
- Oikema, one reference "prison"
- Oiketerion, two occurrences,
"habitation" (Jude 6); "house" (2 Cor. 5:2). The fact that this word
is used of the resurrection body, and of the abode of the angels which
fell, and which habitation they left raises questions of extreme importance,
which should be pondered. The subject is more fully dealt with in the
articles entitled SONS OF GOD and
- Oikodespoteo, "guide the house"
(1 Tim. 5:14).
- Oikodespotes, twelve occurrences,
translated "goodman" once (Luke 22:11), "good man of the house" four
times (Matt. 20:11, 24:43, Mark 14:14, Luke 12:39), "householder" four
times (Matt. 13:27,52,20:1,21 :33), "master of the house" three times
(Matt. 10:25, Luke 13:25, 14:21). It will be observed that the "despotic"
idea attaching to the word "despot" is not incipient but is a sad comment
on human nature which cannot long be entrusted with absolute control.
The Lord is and will be the only true Despot (2 Tim. 2:21).
- Oikodome, "building", occurs
seventeen times, translated "building" six times, "edification" four
times, "edifying" six times, "edify" once. Literal "buildings" are in
the gospels, "edification" and "edifying" in the epistles, and once
"ye are God's building" in 1 Corinthians 3:9.
- Oikodomeo, "to build", occurs
thirty-nine times, translated "build" twenty-four times, "build up"
once, "edify" seven times, "embolden" once, "builder" five times, "be
in building" once.
- Oikodomia occurs once, translated
- Oikonomeo occurs once, translated
- Oikonomia occurs seven times,
translated "dispensation" four times, "stewardship" three times.
- Oikonomos occurs ten times,
translated "chamberlain" once, "governor" once, "steward" eight times.
- Oikoumene occurs fifteen times,
translated "earth" once, "world" fourteen times.
- Oikouros occurs once, translated
"keeper at home".
- Anoikodomeo occurs twice,
translated "build again".
- Enoikeo occurs five times,
- Egkatoikeo occurs once, translated
- Epoikodomeo occurs eight times,
translated "build thereon" once, "build thereupon" twice, "build up"
once, "build up on" once, "build upon" twice.
- Katoikeo occurs forty-eight
times, translated "dwell" thirty-five times, "dwell at" four times,
"dwell in" four times, "dweller at", "dweller in", "inhabitant", "inhabiter",
"inhabiter of", once each.
- Katoikesis occurs once, translated
- Katoiketerion occurs twice,
- Katoikia occurs once, translated
- Metoikesia occurs four times,
translated "carry away" three times, "brought" once.
- Metoikizo occurs twice, translated
"remove" once, "carry away" once.
- Perioikeo occurs once, translated
"dwell round about". Perioikos occurs once, translated "neighbour".
- Paroikeo occurs twice, translated
"be a stranger" once, "sojourn" once.
- Paroikia occurs twice, translated
"sojourning here" once, "dwell as strangers" once.
- Paroikos occurs three times,
translated "foreigner" once, "stranger" twice.
- Sunoikeo occurs once, translated
- Sunoikodomeo occurs once,
translated "build together".
Here is a variety of compounds of the word oikos,
house. The relation of the word "dispensation" to the conception of a
house and its management is made evident, while the collection of words
found in Ephesians 2: 19-22 is of itself a witness to the value of this
recognition. We do not intend writing an expansion of this list of words,
to do so would require a volume, but the student will appreciate the segregation
of this family of words, and will find, we hope, a reference to this list
a help on many occasions.
The fact that the House of God at Jerusalem was not destroyed before
A.D. 70 has no bearing upon Acts twenty-eight, as it had already been
pronounced "desolate" in Matthew 23:38,39.
An Alphabetical Analysis
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