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dynasty and the faith; they were "pan-Egyptian" in politics and religion, and their
accession to the throne meant hard times for the foreign settlers in their midst. The data
to hand are not sufficient to enable us to identify the pharaoh who was the "new king", or
the Pharaoh who was overthrown in the Red Sea; some think that Ahmes, the founder of
the XVIIIth dynasty, was the "new king", others say that Seti I, the founder of the
XIXth dynasty, was the one. All that we can hope to do in these papers is to show
something of the times during which these great events occurred, awaiting, if the Lord
will, further evidences from the excavator and decypherer.
We must reserve any remarks regarding the XIXth dynasty, however, for another
The Egyptian Gallery. "The New King."
Scripture indicates that the Pharaoh who began the oppression of Israel was one of a
line quite distinct from the Pharaoh under whose kindly patronage they had increased and
multiplied. The word "arose" in Exod. 1: 8 is in Hebrew kum, and means "stood up",
denoting the standing up in the place of another who has been removed (see Dan. 2: 31,
39, 44; 3: 24, and Companion Bible). The words of Stephen in Acts 7: 18 point in the
same way, "there stood up another king", the word "another" being heteros, meaning
"another of another kind".
Exodus 1: also very pointedly says, "and he said unto his people", indicating his own
special followers as distinct from the friendly Egyptians who had grown up together with
the Israelites. Whether it was Ahmes, or Seti, or Rameses, who was the oppressor of
Israel, we do not know, but the character of the times and the revolutions that contributed
to the enslaving of Israel are well depicted in the history of the XIXth dynasty.
Rameses I and his son Seti I reigned together as the first kings of the new dynasty, and
it was not long before that Seti succeeded to the sole kingship, then there began the new
regime in earnest. The first three kings vainly endeavoured to expel the Hittite invader,
and although Rameses II compelled the Canaanitish cities to acknowledge the
suzerainty of Egypt, he was glad, twenty years after, to conclude a treaty of peace on
equal terms with "the great king of the Hittites". These enemies on the frontier made the
Israelites in Goshen a source of possible danger to the Egyptians. In the Central Saloon
is a wooden statue of Seti I (No. 854), and Nos. 855, 884, and Bay 18, No. 1375, and
Bay 13, No. 1189, contain portions of monuments erected by this king.
One inscription tells us that "a moment of the struggle of men is dearer to him than a
day of pleasure; he slays them with one stroke, and spares none among them". Josephus
tells that it was foretold to Seti I that a child would be born to the Israelites, who, if he
were reared, would bring the Egyptian dominion low. If there is truth in this story, we
can understand the reason perhaps which prompted the order for the massacre of the
Hebrew boys. Seti, in accordance with the custom of the time, married a granddaughter