VINCENT'S WORD STUDIES
1 CORINTHIANS 10
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Robertson's Word Pictures in the NT - Greek NT
All. Strongly emphasized in contrast with most of them (A.V., many) in ver. 5. All enjoyed the privileges, but few improved them. The word is repeated five times.
Under the cloud. The cloudy pillar which guided the Israelites. It is sometimes spoken of as covering the host. See Psalm cv. 39; Wisdom x. 17; xix. 7; Num. xiv. 14.
Cloud - sea. The two together forming the type of the water of baptism. Bengel says: "The cloud and the sea are in their nature water." The cloud was diffused and suspended water.
That spiritual rock. For that read a. Paul appears to recall a rabbinic tradition that there was a well formed out of the spring in Horeb, which gathered itself up into a rock like a swarm of bees, and followed the people for forty years; sometimes rolling itself, sometimes carried by Miriam, and always addressed by the elders, when they encamped, with the words, "Spring up, O well!" Num. xxi. 17. Stanley says: "In accordance with this notion, the Rock of Moses, as pointed out by the local tradition of Mt. Sinai, is not a cleft in the mountain, but a detached fragment of rock about fifteen feet high, with twelve or more fissures in its surface, from which the water is said to have gushed out for the twelve tribes. This local tradition is as old as the Koran, which mentions this very stone." 108 Was Christ. Showing that he does not believe the legend, but only uses it allegorically. The important point is that Christ the Word was with His people under the old covenant. "In each case we recognize the mystery of a 'real presence"' (Ellicott). "God was in Christ" here, as from the beginning. The mosaic and the christian economies are only different sides of one dispensation, which is a gospel dispensation throughout. The Jewish sacraments are not mere types of ours. They are identical.
Overthrown (katestrwqhsan). Only here in the New Testament. Lit., were strewn down along (the ground). The word belongs mostly to later Greek, though found in Herodotos in the general sense of slaying. So Euripides: "He laid low his wife and child with one dart" ("Hercules Furens," 1000). It is used of spreading a couch.
We should not lust (mh einai hmav epiqumhtav). Lit., should not be desirers. Epiqumhthv desirer, lover, only here in the New Testament. Frequent in the classics. The sins of the Israelites are connected with those of the Corinthians.
Commit fornication. Lasciviousness was habitually associated with idol-worship. The two are combined, Acts xv. 29. A thousand priests ministered at the licentious rites of the temple of Venus at Corinth. 109 Three and twenty thousand. A plain discrepancy between this statement and Num. xxv. 9, where the number is twenty-four thousand. It may have been a lapse of memory.
The destroyer (tou oloqreutou). The destroying angel, who is called oJ ojloqreuwn, Exod. xii. 23.
For ensamples (tupoi). The best texts read tupikwv by way of figure. Admonition (nouqesian). See on the kindred verb to warn, Acts xx. 31 Ends of the world (ta telh twn aiwnwn). Lit., ends of the ages. So Rev. Synonymous with hJ sunteleia twn aijwnwn the consummation of the ages, Heb. ix. 26. The phrase assumes that Christ's second coming is close at hand, and therefore the end of the world. Ellicott acutely remarks that the plural, ends, marks a little more distinctly the idea of each age of preparation having passed into the age that succeeded it, so that now all the ends of the ages have come down to them.
Are come (kathnthken) See on Acts xxvi. 7. Compare Eph. iv. 13; Philip. iii. 11.
Common to man (anqrwpinov). The word means what belongs to men, human. It occurs mostly in this epistle; once in Rom. vi. 19, meaning after the manner of men, popularly (see note). See Jas. iii. 7; 1 Pet. ii. 13; 1 Cor. ii. 4, 13; iv. 3. It may mean here a temptation which is human, i.e., incident or common to man, as A.V., or, inferentially, a temptation adapted to human strength; such as man can bear, Rev. The words are added as an encouragement, to offset the warning "let him that thinketh," etc. They are in danger and must watch, but the temptation will not be beyond their strength.
A way to escape (thn ekbasin). Rev., better, the way of escape. The word means an egress, a way out. In classical Greek, especially, of a way out of the sea. Hence, in later Greek, of a landing-place. Compare Xenophon: "The ford that was over against the outlet leading to the mountains" ("Anabasis," 4. 3, 20). 110 For the sense of issue or end, see on Heb. xiii. 7. The words with the temptation and the way of escape imply an adjustment of the deliverance to each particular case.
To bear. Not the same as escape. Temptation which cannot be fed must be endured. Often the only escape is through endurance. See Jas. i. 12.
Communion (koinwnia). Or participation. See on fellowship, 1 John i. 3; Acts ii. 42; partners, Luke v. 10. The Passover was celebrated by families, typifying an unbroken fellowship of those who formed one body, with the God who had passed by the blood-sprinkled doors.
Body. Passing from the literal sense, the Lord's body (ver. 16), to the figurative sense, the body of believers, the Church.
Partake of (ek metecomen). Or partake from. That which all eat is taken from (ek) the one loaf, and they eat of it mutually, in common, sharing it among them (meta). So Ignatius: "That ye come together ena arton klwntev breaking one loaf" (Ephesians, 20.).
Partakers of the altar (koinwnoi tou qusiasthriou). An awkward phrase. Rev., better, bringing out the force of koinwnoi communers: have not they - communion with the altar? The Israelite who partook of the sacrifices (Lev. viii. 31) united himself with the altar of God. Paul says with the altar rather than with God, in order to emphasize the communion through the specific act of worship or sacrifice; since, in a larger sense, Israel after the flesh, Israel regarded as a nation, was, in virtue of that fact, in fellowship with God, apart from his partaking of the sacrifices.
Possibly, also, to suggest the external character of the Jewish worship in contrast with the spiritual worship of Christians. Philo calls the Jewish priest koinwnov tou bwmou partaker of the altar.
The Lord's table. Representing the Lord's Supper. See ch. xi. 20 sqq. The Greeks and Romans, on extraordinary occasions, placed images of the gods reclining on couches, with tables and food beside them, as if really partakers of the things offered in sacrifice.113 Diodorus, describing the temple of Bel at Babylon, mentions a large table of beaten gold, forty feet by fifteen, standing before the colossal statues of three deities. Upon it were two drinking-cups. See, also, the story of "Bel and the Dragon," vers. 10-15. 114 The sacredness of the table in heathen worship is apparent from the manner in which it is combined with the altar in solemn formulae; as ara et mensa. Allusions to the table or to food and drink-offerings in honor of heathen deities occur in the Old Testament: Isa. lxv. 11; Jer. vii. 18; Ezek. xvi. 18, 19; xxiii. 41. In Mal. i. 7, the altar of burnt-offering is called "the table of the Lord." 115
Are we stronger. The force of the interrogative particle is, surely we are not stronger.
Asking no question. As to whether the meat had been used in idol sacrifice. See on ch. ii. 14.
Shewed (mhnusanta) See on Luke xx. 37 It implies the disclosure of a secret which the brother reveals because he thinks his companion in danger