one of the particulars regarding which retaliatory punishment
was to be inflicted (Ex. 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21).
"Gnashing of teeth" =rage, despair (Matt. 8:12; Acts 7:54);
"cleanness of teeth" =famine (Amos 4:6); "children's teeth set
on edge" =children suffering for the sins of their fathers
Heb. pitdah (Ezek. 28:13; Rev. 21:20), a golden yellow or
"green" stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19). It was
the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high
priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it (Ex. 28:17).
It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns.
lime, a place in the wilderness of Sinai (Deut. 1:1), now
identified with Tafyleh or Tufileh, on the west side of the
=Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children
here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the
noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to
burn," and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular
part in the valley of Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive
of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize
the agency by which God punishes or destroys the wicked. We are
not to assume from prophetical figures that material fire is the
precise agent to be used. It was not the agency employed in the
destruction of Sennacherib, mentioned in Isa. 30:33...Tophet
properly begins where the Vale of Hinnom bends round to the
east, having the cliffs of Zion on the north, and the Hill of
Evil Counsel on the south. It terminates at Beer 'Ayub, where it
joins the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The cliffs on the southern side
especially abound in ancient tombs. Here the dead carcasses of
beasts and every offal and abomination were cast, and left to be
either devoured by that worm that never died or consumed by that
fire that was never quenched." Thus Tophet came to represent the
place of punishment. (See HINNOM.)
On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of
Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers
from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with
lanterns and torches and weapons" (John 18:1-3). Although it was
the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there
fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and
projecting rocks; there were there caverns and grottos, into
which a fugitive might retreat; finally, there were probably a
garden-house and tower, into whose gloom it might be necessary
for a searcher to throw light around." Lange's Commentary.
(Nahum 2:3, "torches," Revised Version, "steel," probably should
be "scythes" for war-chariots.)
Gr. basanos (Matt. 4:24), the "touch-stone" of justice; hence
inquisition by torture, and then any disease which racks and
tortures the limbs.
(Heb. tsabh). Ranked among the unclean animals (Lev. 11:29).
Land tortoises are common in Syria. The LXX. renders the word by
"land crocodile." The word, however, more probably denotes a
lizard, called by the modern Arabs dhabb.
(Judg. 16:9). See FLAX.
Tower of the furnaces
(Neh. 3:11; 12:38), a tower at the north-western angle of the
second wall of Jerusalem. It was probably so named from its
contiguity to the "bakers' street" (Jer. 37:21).
of Babel (Gen. 11:4), Edar (Gen. 35:21), Penuel (Judg. 8:9, 17),
Shechem (9:46), David (Cant. 4:4), Lebanon (7:4), Syene (Ezek.
29:10), Hananeel (Zech. 14:10), Siloam (Luke 13:4). There were
several towers in Jerusalem (2 Chr. 26:9; Ps. 48:12). They were
erected for various purposes, as watch-towers in vineyard (Isa.
5:2; Matt. 21:33) and towers for defence.
a rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek
name of a region on the east of Jordan (Luke 3:1); one of the
five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It
was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah.
any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from
generation to generation. In Mark 7:3, 9, 13, Col. 2:8, this
word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2
Thess. 2:15; 3:6, it is used in a good sense. Peter (1 Pet.
1:18) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of
the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (comp. Acts 15:10;
Matt. 15:2-6; Gal. 1:14).
(Gr. ekstasis, from which the word "ecstasy" is derived) denotes
the state of one who is "out of himself." Such were the trances
of Peter and Paul, Acts 10:10; 11:5; 22:17, ecstasies, "a
preternatural, absorbed state of mind preparing for the
reception of the vision", (comp. 2 Cor. 12:1-4). In Mark 5:42
and Luke 5:26 the Greek word is rendered "astonishment,"
"amazement" (comp. Mark 16:8; Acts 3:10).
of our Lord on a "high mountain apart," is described by each of
the three evangelists (Matt. 17:1-8; Mark 9:2-8; Luke 9:28-36).
The fullest account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was
informed by Peter, who was present on the occasion. What these
evangelists record was an absolute historical reality, and not a
mere vision. The concurrence between them in all the
circumstances of the incident is exact. John seems to allude to
it also (John 1:14). Forty years after the event Peter
distinctly makes mention of it (2 Pet. 1:16-18). In describing
the sanctification of believers, Paul also seems to allude to
this majestic and glorious appearance of our Lord on the "holy
mount" (Rom. 12:2; 2 Cor. 3:18).
The place of the transfiguration was probably Mount Hermon
(q.v.), and not Mount Tabor, as is commonly supposed.
store cities which the Israelites built for the Egyptians (Ex.
1:11). (See PITHOM.) Towns in which the treasures of
the kings of Judah were kept were so designated (1 Chr. 27:25).
the houses or magazines built for the safe keeping of treasure
and valuable articles of any kind (Ezra 5:17; 7:20; Neh. 10:38;
(Matt. 27:6; Mark 12:41; John 8:20). It does not appear that
there was a separate building so called. The name was given to
the thirteen brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of
the opening into which the offerings of the temple worshippers
were put. These stood in the outer "court of the women." "Nine
chests were for the appointed money-tribute and for the
sacrifice-tribute, i.e., money-gifts instead of the sacrifices;
four chests for freewill-offerings for wood, incense, temple
decoration, and burnt-offerings" (Lightfoot's Hor. Heb.).
Tree of life
stood also in the midst of the garden of Eden (Gen. 2:9; 3:22).
Some writers have advanced the opinion that this tree had some
secret virtue, which was fitted to preserve life. Probably the
lesson conveyed was that life was to be sought by man, not in
himself or in his own power, but from without, from Him who is
emphatically the Life (John 1:4; 14:6). Wisdom is compared to
the tree of life (Prov. 3:18). The "tree of life" spoken of in
the Book of Revelation (Rev. 2:7; 22:2, 14) is an emblem of the
joys of the celestial paradise.
Tree of the knowledge of good and evil
stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of
life (Gen. 2, 3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the
fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine
injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and
became the heritage of Adam's posterity. (See ADAM.)
(Heb. 'asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Lev.
5:14-6:7; also in Num. 5:5-8. The idea of sin as a "debt"
pervades this legislation. The asham, which was always a ram,
was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See OFFERING.)
a collection of families descending from one ancestor. The
"twelve tribes" of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of
families which sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Matt. 24:30 the
word has a wider significance. The tribes of Israel are referred
to as types of the spiritual family of God (Rev. 7). (See
ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF; JUDAH, KINGDOM OF.)
trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2
Cor. 7:4). In Rom. 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal
sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matt. 24:21, 29,
the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the
destruction of Jerusalem.
a tax imposed by a king on his subjects (2 Sam. 20:24; 1 Kings
4:6; Rom. 13:6). In Matt. 17:24-27 the word denotes the temple
rate (the "didrachma," the "half-shekel," as rendered by the
R.V.) which was required to be paid for the support of the
temple by every Jew above twenty years of age (Ex. 30:12; 2
Kings 12:4; 2 Chr. 24:6, 9). It was not a civil but a religious
In Matt. 22:17, Mark 12:14, Luke 20:22, the word may be
interpreted as denoting the capitation tax which the Romans
imposed on the Jewish people. It may, however, be legitimately
regarded as denoting any tax whatever imposed by a foreign power
on the people of Israel. The "tribute money" shown to our Lord
(Matt. 22:19) was the denarius, bearing Caesar's superscription.
It was the tax paid by every Jew to the Romans. (See PENNY.)
a word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine
of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons.
This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by
Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used
by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The
propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is
one, and that there is but one God (Deut. 6:4; 1 Kings 8:60;
Isa. 44:6; Mark 12:29, 32; John 10:30). 2. That the Father is a
distinct divine Person (hypostasis, subsistentia, persona,
suppositum intellectuale), distinct from the Son and the Holy
Spirit. 3. That Jesus Christ was truly God, and yet was a Person
distinct from the Father and the Holy Spirit. 4. That the Holy
Spirit is also a distinct divine Person.
a city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor,
named after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from
it (about 4 miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second
missionary journey, saw the vision of a "man of Macedonia," who
appeared to him, saying, "Come over, and help us" (Acts
16:8-11). He visited this place also on other occasions, and on
one of these visits he left his cloak and some books there (2
Cor. 2:12; 2 Tim. 4:13). The ruins of Troas extend over many
miles, the site being now mostly covered with a forest of oak
trees. The modern name of the ruins is Eski Stamboul i.e., Old
a town on the western coast of Asia Minor, where Paul "tarried"
when on his way from Assos to Miletus, on his third missionary
journey (Acts 20:15).
a foster-child, an Ephesian who accompanied Paul during a part
of his third missionary journey (Acts 20:4; 21:29). He was with
Paul in Jerusalem, and the Jews, supposing that the apostle had
brought him with him into the temple, raised a tumult which
resulted in Paul's imprisonment. (See TEMPLE, HEROD'S.) In writing to Timothy, the apostle says, "Trophimus
have I left at Miletum sick" (2 Tim. 4:20). This must refer to
some event not noticed in the Acts.
were of a great variety of forms, and were made of divers
materials. Some were made of silver (Num. 10:2), and were used
only by the priests in announcing the approach of festivals and
in giving signals of war. Some were also made of rams' horns
(Josh. 6:8). They were blown at special festivals, and to herald
the arrival of special seasons (Lev. 23:24; 25:9; 1 Chr. 15:24;
2 Chr. 29:27; Ps. 81:3; 98:6).
"Trumpets" are among the symbols used in the Book of
Revelation (Rev. 1:10; 8:2). (See HORN.)
Trumpets, Feast of
was celebrated at the beginning of the month Tisri, the first
month of the civil year. It received its name from the
circumstances that the trumpets usually blown at the
commencement of each month were on that occasion blown with
unusual solemnity (Lev. 23:23-25; Num. 10:10; 29:1-6). It was
one of the seven days of holy convocation. The special design of
this feast, which is described in these verses, is not known.
Used in various senses in Scripture. In Prov. 12:17, 19, it
denotes that which is opposed to falsehood. In Isa. 59:14, 15,
Jer. 7:28, it means fidelity or truthfulness. The doctrine of
Christ is called "the truth of the gospel" (Gal. 2:5), "the
truth" (2 Tim. 3:7; 4:4). Our Lord says of himself, "I am the
way, and the truth" (John 14:6).
Tryphena and Tryphosa
two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his
epistle to the Romans (16:12).
(1.) The fifth son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2).
(2.) A nation, probably descended from the son of Japheth. It
is mentioned by Isaiah (66:19), along with Javan, and by Ezekiel
(27:13), along with Meshech, among the traders with Tyre, also
among the confederates of Gog (Ezek. 38:2, 3; 39:1), and with
Meshech among the nations which were to be destroyed (32:26).
This nation was probably the Tiberini of the Greek historian
Herodotus, a people of the Asiatic highland west of the Upper
Euphrates, the southern range of the Caucasus, on the east of
the Black Sea.
the son of Lamech and Zillah, "an instructor of every artificer
in brass and iron" (Gen. 4:22; R.V., "the forger of every
cutting instrument of brass and iron").
Its peculiar peaceful and gentle habit its often referred to in
Scripture. A pair was offered in sacrifice by Mary at her
purification (Luke 2:24). The pigeon and the turtle-dove were
the only birds permitted to be offered in sacrifice (Lev. 1:14;
5:7; 14:22; 15:14, 29, etc.). The Latin name of this bird,
turtur, is derived from its note, and is a repetition of the
Hebrew name tor. Three species are found in Palestine, (1) the
turtle-dove (Turtur auritus), (2) the collared turtle (T.
risorius), and (3) the palm turtle (T. Senegalensis). But it is
to the first of these species which the various passages of
Scripture refer. It is a migratory bird (Jer. 8:7; Cant. 2:11,
12). "Search the glades and valleys, even by sultry Jordan, at
the end of March, and not a turtle-dove is to be seen. Return in
the second week of April, and clouds of doves are feeding on the
clovers of the plain. They overspread the whole face of the
land." "Immediately on its arrival it pours forth from every
garden, grove, and wooded hill its melancholy yet soothing ditty
unceasingly from early dawn till sunset. It is from its
plaintive and continuous note, doubtless, that David, pouring
forth his heart's sorrow to God, compares himself to a
turtle-dove" (Ps. 74:19).
chance, an Asiatic Christian, a "faithful minister in the Lord"
(Eph. 6:21, 22), who, with Trophimus, accompanied Paul on a part
of his journey from Macedonia to Jerusalem (Acts 20:4). He is
alluded to also in Col. 4:7, Titus 3:12, and 2 Tim. 4:12 as
having been with Paul at Rome, whence he sent him to Ephesus,
probably for the purpose of building up and encouraging the
occurs only once in Scripture (1 Cor. 10:11, A.V. marg.). The
Greek word tupos is rendered "print" (John 20:25), "figure"
(Acts 7:43; Rom. 5:14), "fashion" (Acts 7:44), "manner" (Acts
23:25), "form" (Rom. 6:17), "example" or "ensample" (1 Cor.
10:6, 11; Phil. 3:17; 1 Thess. 1:7; 2 Thess. 3:9; 1 Tim. 4:12).
It properly means a "model" or "pattern" or "mould" into which
clay or wax was pressed, that it might take the figure or exact
shape of the mould. The word "type" is generally used to denote
a resemblance between something present and something future,
which is called the "antitype."
prince, a Greek rhetorician, in whose "school" at Ephesus Paul
disputed daily for the space of two years with those who came to
him (Acts 19:9). Some have supposed that he was a Jew, and that
his "school" was a private synagogue.
a rock, now es-Sur; an ancient Phoenician city, about 23 miles,
in a direct line, north of Acre, and 20 south of Sidon. Sidon
was the oldest Phoenician city, but Tyre had a longer and more
illustrious history. The commerce of the whole world was
gathered into the warehouses of Tyre. "Tyrian merchants were the
first who ventured to navigate the Mediterranean waters; and
they founded their colonies on the coasts and neighbouring
islands of the AEgean Sea, in Greece, on the northern coast of
Africa, at Carthage and other places, in Sicily and Corsica, in
Spain at Tartessus, and even beyond the pillars of Hercules at
Gadeira (Cadiz)" (Driver's Isaiah). In the time of David a
friendly alliance was entered into between the Hebrews and the
Tyrians, who were long ruled over by their native kings (2 Sam.
5:11; 1 Kings 5:1; 2 Chr. 2:3).
Tyre consisted of two distinct parts, a rocky fortress on the
mainland, called "Old Tyre," and the city, built on a small,
rocky island about half-a-mile distant from the shore. It was a
place of great strength. It was besieged by Shalmaneser, who was
assisted by the Phoenicians of the mainland, for five years, and
by Nebuchadnezzar (B.C. 586-573) for thirteen years, apparently
without success. It afterwards fell under the power of Alexander
the Great, after a siege of seven months, but continued to
maintain much of its commercial importance till the Christian
era. It is referred to in Matt. 11:21 and Acts 12:20. In A.D.
1291 it was taken by the Saracens, and has remained a desolate
ruin ever since.
"The purple dye of Tyre had a worldwide celebrity on account
of the durability of its beautiful tints, and its manufacture
proved a source of abundant wealth to the inhabitants of that
Both Tyre and Sidon "were crowded with glass-shops, dyeing and
weaving establishments; and among their cunning workmen not the
least important class were those who were celebrated for the
engraving of precious stones." (2 Chr. 2:7,14).
The wickedness and idolatry of this city are frequently
denounced by the prophets, and its final destruction predicted
(Isa. 23:1; Jer. 25:22; Ezek. 26; 28:1-19; Amos 1:9, 10; Zech.
Here a church was founded soon after the death of Stephen, and
Paul, on his return from his third missionary journey spent a
week in intercourse with the disciples there (Acts 21:4). Here
the scene at Miletus was repeated on his leaving them. They all,
with their wives and children, accompanied him to the sea-shore.
The sea-voyage of the apostle terminated at Ptolemais, about 38
miles from Tyre. Thence he proceeded to Caesarea (Acts 21:5-8).
"It is noticed on monuments as early as B.C. 1500, and
claiming, according to Herodotus, to have been founded about
B.C. 2700. It had two ports still existing, and was of
commercial importance in all ages, with colonies at Carthage
(about B.C. 850) and all over the Mediterranean. It was often
attacked by Egypt and Assyria, and taken by Alexander the Great
after a terrible siege in B.C. 332. It is now a town of 3,000
inhabitants, with ancient tombs and a ruined cathedral. A short
Phoenician text of the fourth century B.C. is the only monument
(i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemongers"), the name given by
Josephus the historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in
ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This
valley, now filled up with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and
almost a plain, was spanned by bridges, the most noted of which
was Zion Bridge, which was probably the ordinary means of
communication between the royal palace on Zion and the temple. A
fragment of the arch (q.v.) of this bridge (called "Robinson's
Arch"), where it projects from the sanctuary wall, was
discovered by Robinson in 1839. This arch was destroyed by the
Romans when Jerusalem was taken.
The western wall of the temple area rose up from the bottom of
this valley to the height of 84 feet, where it was on a level
with the area, and above this, and as a continuance of it, the
wall of Solomon's cloister rose to the height of about 50 feet,
"so that this section of the wall would originally present to
view a stupendous mass of masonry scarcely to be surpassed by
any mural masonry in the world."
the name of a person to whom Agur's words are addressed (Prov.
the Eulaus of the Greeks; a river of Susiana. It was probably
the eastern branch of the Choasper (Kerkhan), which divided into
two branches some 20 miles above the city of Susa. Hence Daniel
(8:2,16) speaks of standing "between the banks of Ulai", i.e.,
between the two streams of the divided river.
vicinity, a town of Asher (Josh. 19:30).
(1 John 2:20,27; R.V., "anointing"). Kings, prophets, and
priests were anointed, in token of receiving divine grace. All
believers are, in a secondary sense, what Christ was in a
primary sense, "the Lord's anointed."
described as an animal of great ferocity and strength (Num.
23:22, R.V., "wild ox," marg., "ox-antelope;" 24:8; Isa. 34:7,
R.V., "wild oxen"), and untamable (Job 39:9). It was in reality
a two-horned animal; but the exact reference of the word so
rendered (reem) is doubtful. Some have supposed it to be the
buffalo; others, the white antelope, called by the Arabs rim.
Most probably, however, the word denotes the Bos primigenius
("primitive ox"), which is now extinct all over the world. This
was the auerochs of the Germans, and the urus described by
Caesar (Gal. Bel., vi.28) as inhabiting the Hercynian forest.
The word thus rendered has been found in an Assyrian inscription
written over the wild ox or bison, which some also suppose to be
the animal intended (comp. Deut. 33:17; Ps. 22:21; 29:6; 92:10).
(1.) A Levite whom David appointed to take part in
bringing the ark up to Jerusalem from the house of Obed-edom by
playing the psaltery on that occasion (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(2.) A Levite who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity
and they divide, one of the words written by the mysterious hand
on the wall of Belshazzar's palace (Dan. 5:25). It is a pure
Chaldean word. "Peres" is only a simple form of the same word.
probably another name for Ophir (Jer. 10:9). Some, however,
regard it as the name of an Indian colony in Yemen, southern
Arabia; others as a place on or near the river Hyphasis (now the
Ghana), the south-eastern limit of the Punjaub.
light, or the moon city, a city "of the Chaldees," the
birthplace of Haran (Gen. 11:28,31), the largest city of Shinar
or northern Chaldea, and the principal commercial centre of the
country as well as the centre of political power. It stood near
the mouth of the Euphrates, on its western bank, and is
represented by the mounds (of bricks cemented by bitumen) of
el-Mugheir, i.e., "the bitumined," or "the town of bitumen," now
150 miles from the sea and some 6 miles from the Euphrates, a
little above the point where it receives the Shat el-Hie, an
affluent from the Tigris. It was formerly a maritime city, as
the waters of the Persian Gulf reached thus far inland. Ur was
the port of Babylonia, whence trade was carried on with the
dwellers on the gulf, and with the distant countries of India,
Ethiopia, and Egypt. It was abandoned about B.C. 500, but long
continued, like Erech, to be a great sacred cemetery city, as is
evident from the number of tombs found there. (See ABRAHAM.)
The oldest king of Ur known to us is Ur-Ba'u (servant of the
goddess Ba'u), as Hommel reads the name, or Ur-Gur, as others
read it. He lived some twenty-eight hundred years B.C., and took
part in building the famous temple of the moon-god Sin in Ur
itself. The illustration here given represents his cuneiform
inscription, written in the Sumerian language, and stamped upon
every brick of the temple in Ur. It reads: "Ur-Ba'u, king of Ur,
who built the temple of the moon-god."
"Ur was consecrated to the worship of Sin, the Babylonian
moon-god. It shared this honour, however, with another city, and
this city was Haran, or Harran. Harran was in Mesopotamia, and
took its name from the highroad which led through it from the
east to the west. The name is Babylonian, and bears witness to
its having been founded by a Babylonian king. The same witness
is still more decisively borne by the worship paid in it to the
Babylonian moon-god and by its ancient temple of Sin. Indeed,
the temple of the moon-god at Harran was perhaps even more
famous in the Assyrian and Babylonian world than the temple of
the moon-god at Ur.
"Between Ur and Harran there must, consequently, have been a
close connection in early times, the record of which has not yet
been recovered. It may be that Harran owed its foundation to a
king of Ur; at any rate the two cities were bound together by
the worship of the same deity, the closest and most enduring
bond of union that existed in the ancient world. That Terah
should have migrated from Ur to Harran, therefore, ceases to be
extraordinary. If he left Ur at all, it was the most natural
place to which to go. It was like passing from one court of a
temple into another.
"Such a remarkable coincidence between the Biblical narrative
and the evidence of archaeological research cannot be the result
of chance. The narrative must be historical; no writer of late
date, even if he were a Babylonian, could have invented a story
so exactly in accordance with what we now know to have been the
truth. For a story of the kind to have been the invention of
Palestinian tradition is equally impossible. To the unprejudiced
mind there is no escape from the conclusion that the history of
the migration of Terah from Ur to Harran is founded on fact"
the Lord is my light.
(1.) A Hittite, the husband of Bathsheba,
whom David first seduced, and then after Uriah's death married.
He was one of the band of David's "mighty men." The sad story of
the curel wrongs inflicted upon him by David and of his mournful
death are simply told in the sacred record (2 Sam. 11:2-12:26).
(See BATHSHEBA; DAVID.)
(2.) A priest of the house of Ahaz (Isa. 8:2).
(3.) The father of Meremoth, mentioned in Ezra 8:33.
God is my light.
(1.) A Levite of the family of Kohath (1 Chr.
(2.) The chief of the Kohathites at the time when the ark was
brought up to Jerusalem (1 Chr. 15:5, 11).
(3.) The father of Michaiah, one of Rehoboam's wives, and
mother of Abijah (2 Chr. 13:2).
the lord is my light.
(1.) A high priest in the time of Ahaz (2
Kings 16:10-16), at whose bidding he constructed an idolatrous
altar like one the king had seen at Damascus, to be set up
instead of the brazen altar.
(2.) One of the priests who stood at the right hand of Ezra's
pulpit when he read and expounded the law (Neh. 8:4).
(3.) A prophet of Kirjath-jearim in the reign of Jehoiakim,
king of Judah (Jer. 26:20-23). He fled into Egypt from the
cruelty of the king, but having been brought back he was
beheaded and his body "cast into the graves of the common
lights (Vulg."doctrina;" LXX. "revelation"). See THUMMIM.
the sum paid for the use of money, hence interest; not, as in
the modern sense, exorbitant interest. The Jews were forbidden
to exact usury (Lev. 25:36, 37), only, however, in their
dealings with each other (Deut. 23:19, 20). The violation of
this law was viewed as a great crime (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 28:8; Jer.
15:10). After the Return, and later, this law was much neglected
(Neh. 5:7, 10).
(1.) The son of Aram, and grandson of Shem (Gen.
10:23; 1 Chr. 1:17).
(2.) One of the Horite "dukes" in the land of Edom (Gen.
(3.) The eldest son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:21,
a wanderer, a descendant of Joktan (Gen. 10:27; 1 Chr. 1:21),
the founder apparently of one of the Arab tribes; the name also
probably of the province they occupied and of their chief city.
Uz, The land of
where Job lived (1:1; Jer. 25:20; Lam. 4:21), probably somewhere
to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom. It is
mentioned in Scripture only in these three passages.
strengh, a garden in which Manasseh and Amon were buried (2
Kings 21:18, 26). It was probably near the king's palace in
Jerusalem, or may have formed part of the palace grounds.
Manasseh may probably have acquired it from some one of this
strength, a son of Abinadab, in whose house the men of
Kirjath-jearim placed the ark when it was brought back from the
land of the Philistines (1 Sam. 7:1). He with his brother Ahio
drove the cart on which the ark was placed when David sought to
bring it up to Jerusalem. When the oxen stumbled, Uzzah, in
direct violation of the divine law (Num. 4:15), put forth his
hand to steady the ark, and was immediately smitten unto death.
The place where this occurred was henceforth called Perez-uzzah
(1 Chr. 13:11). David on this feared to proceed further, and
placed the ark in the house of Obed-edom the Gittite (2 Sam.
6:2-11; 1 Chr. 13:6-13).
a town probably near Beth-horon. It derived its name from the
daughter of Ephraim (1 Chr. 7:24).
the Lord is my strength.
(1.) The son of Bukki, and a descendant
of Aaron (1 Chr. 6:5, 51; Ezra 7:4).
(2.) A grandson of Issachar (1 Chr. 7:2, 3).
(3.) A son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:7).
(4.) A Benjamite, a chief in the tribe (1 Chr. 9:8).
(5.) A son of Bani. He had the oversight of the Levites after
the return from captivity (Neh. 11:22).
(6.) The head of the house of Jedaiah, one of "the chief of
the priests" (Neh. 12:19).
(7.) A priest who assisted in the dedication of the walls of
Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).
a contracted form of Azari'ah the Lord is my strength.
of Amaziah's sons, whom the people made king of Judah in his
father's stead (2 Kings 14:21; 2 Chr. 26:1). His long reign of
about fifty-two years was "the most prosperous excepting that of
Jehosaphat since the time of Solomon." He was a vigorous and
able ruler, and "his name spread abroad, even to the entering in
of Egypt" (2 Chr. 26:8, 14). In the earlier part of his reign,
under the influence of Zechariah, he was faithful to Jehovah,
and "did that which was right in the sight of the Lord" (2 Kings
15:3; 2 Chr. 26:4, 5); but toward the close of his long life
"his heart was lifted up to his destruction," and he wantonly
invaded the priest's office (2 Chr. 26:16), and entering the
sanctuary proceeded to offer incense on the golden altar.
Azariah the high priest saw the tendency of such a daring act on
the part of the king, and with a band of eighty priests he
withstood him (2 Chr. 26:17), saying, "It appertaineth not unto
thee, Uzziah, to burn incense." Uzziah was suddenly struck with
leprosy while in the act of offering incense (26:19-21), and he
was driven from the temple and compelled to reside in "a several
house" to the day of his death (2 Kings 15:5, 27; 2 Chr. 26:3).
He was buried in a separate grave "in the field of the burial
which belonged to the kings" (2 Kings 15:7; 2 Chr. 26:23). "That
lonely grave in the royal necropolis would eloquently testify to
coming generations that all earthly monarchy must bow before the
inviolable order of the divine will, and that no interference
could be tolerated with that unfolding of the purposes of God,
which, in the fulness of time, would reveal the Christ, the true
High Priest and King for evermore" (Dr. Green's Kingdom of
(2.) The father of Jehonathan, one of David's overseers (1
strength of God.
(1.) One of the sons of Kohath, and uncle of
Aaron (Ex. 6:18; Lev. 10:4).
(2.) A Simeonite captain (1 Chr. 4:39-43).
(3.) A son of Bela, and grandson of Benjamin (1 Chr. 7:7).
(4.) One of the sons of Heman (1 Chr. 25:4); called also
(5.) A son of Jeduthan (2 Chr. 29:14).
(6.) The son of Harhaiah (Neh. 3:8).
from Lat. vagabundus, "a wanderer," "a fugitive;" not used
opprobriously (Gen. 4:12, R.V., "wanderer;" Ps. 109:10; Acts
19:13, R.V., "strolling").
purity; worthy of honour, one of Haman's sons, whom the Jews
slew in the palace of Shushan (Esther 9:9).
(1.) Heb. bik'ah, a "cleft" of the mountains (Deut. 8:7; 11:11;
Ps. 104:8; Isa. 41:18); also a low plain bounded by mountains,
as the plain of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon around the sources
of the Jordan (Josh. 11:17; 12:7), and the valley of Megiddo (2
(2.) 'Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10, 21; Ps.
65:13; Cant. 2:1), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley
of giants" (Josh. 15:8), usually translated "valley of Rephaim"
(2 Sam. 5:18); of Elah (1 Sam. 17:2), of Berachah (2 Chr.
20:26); the king's "dale" (Gen. 14:17); of Jehoshaphat (Joel
3:2, 12), of Achor (Josh. 7:24; Isa. 65:10), Succoth (Ps. 60:6),
Ajalon (Josh. 10:12), Jezreel (Hos. 1:5).
(3.) Ge, "a bursting," a "flowing together," a narrow glen or
ravine, such as the valley of the children of Hinnom (2 Kings
23:10); of Eshcol (Deut. 1:24); of Sorek (Judg. 16:4), etc.
The "valley of vision" (Isa. 22:1) is usually regarded as
denoting Jerusalem, which "may be so called," says Barnes (Com.
on Isa.), "either (1) because there were several valleys within
the city and adjacent to it, as the vale between Mount Zion and
Moriah, the vale between Mount Moriah and Mount Ophel, between
these and Mount Bezetha, and the valley of Jehoshaphat, the
valley of the brook Kidron, etc., without the walls of the city;
or (2) more probably it was called the valley in reference to
its being compassed with hills rising to a considerable
elevation above the city" (Ps. 125:2; comp. also Jer. 21:13,
where Jerusalem is called a "valley").
(4.) Heb. nahal, a wady or water-course (Gen. 26:19; Cant.
beautiful, the queen of Ahasuerus, who was deposed from her
royal dignity because she refused to obey the king when he
desired her to appear in the banqueting hall of Shushan the
palace (Esther 1:10-12). (See ESTHER.)
is said to be the oldest extant vellum manuscript. It and the
Codex Sinaiticus are the two oldest uncial manuscripts. They
were probably written in the fourth century. The Vaticanus was
placed in the Vatican Library at Rome by Pope Nicolas V. in
1448, its previous history being unknown. It originally
consisted in all probability of a complete copy of the
Septuagint and of the New Testament. It is now imperfect, and
consists of 759 thin, delicate leaves, of which the New
Testament fills 142. Like the Sinaiticus, it is of the greatest
value to Biblical scholars in aiding in the formation of a
correct text of the New Testament. It is referred to by critics
as Codex B.
(1.) Heb. mitpahath (Ruth 3:15; marg., "sheet" or "apron;" R.V.,
"mantle"). In Isa. 3:22 this word is plural, rendered "wimples;"
R.V., "shawls" i.e., wraps.
(2.) Massekah (Isa. 25:7; in Isa. 28:20 rendered "covering").
The word denotes something spread out and covering or concealing
something else (comp. 2 Cor. 3:13-15).
(3.) Masveh (Ex. 34:33, 35), the veil on the face of Moses.
This verse should be read, "And when Moses had done speaking
with them, he put a veil on his face," as in the Revised
Version. When Moses spoke to them he was without the veil; only
when he ceased speaking he put on the veil (comp. 2 Cor. 3:13,
(4.) Paroheth (Ex. 26:31-35), the veil of the tabernacle and
the temple, which hung between the holy place and the most holy
(2 Chr. 3:14). In the temple a partition wall separated these
two places. In it were two folding-doors, which are supposed to
have been always open, the entrance being concealed by the veil
which the high priest lifted when he entered into the sanctuary
on the day of Atonement. This veil was rent when Christ died on
the cross (Matt. 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45).
(5.) Tza'iph (Gen. 24:65). Rebekah "took a vail and covered
herself." (See also 38:14, 19.) Hebrew women generally appeared
in public without veils (12:14; 24:16; 29:10; 1 Sam. 1:12).
(6.) Radhidh (Cant. 5:7, R.V. "mantle;" Isa. 3:23). The word
probably denotes some kind of cloak or wrapper.
(7.) Masak, the veil which hung before the entrance to the
holy place (Ex. 26:36, 37).
a translation of the holy Scriptures. This word is not found in
the Bible, nevertheless, as frequent references are made in this
work to various ancient as well as modern versions, it is
fitting that some brief account should be given of the most
important of these. These versions are important helps to the
right interpretation of the Word. (See SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH.)
1. The Targums. After the return from the Captivity, the Jews,
no longer familiar with the old Hebrew, required that their
Scriptures should be translated for them into the Chaldaic or
Aramaic language and interpreted. These translations and
paraphrases were at first oral, but they were afterwards reduced
to writing, and thus targums, i.e., "versions" or
"translations", have come down to us. The chief of these are,
(1.) The Onkelos Targum, i.e., the targum of Akelas=Aquila, a
targum so called to give it greater popularity by comparing it
with the Greek translation of Aquila mentioned below. This
targum originated about the second century after Christ. (2.)
The targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel comes next to that of Onkelos
in respect of age and value. It is more a paraphrase on the
Prophets, however, than a translation. Both of these targums
issued from the Jewish school which then flourished at Babylon.
2. The Greek Versions.
(1.) The oldest of these is the
Septuagint, usually quoted as the LXX. The origin of this the
most important of all the versions is involved in much
obscurity. It derives its name from the popular notion that
seventy-two translators were employed on it by the direction of
Ptolemy Philadelphus, king of Egypt, and that it was
accomplished in seventy-two days, for the use of the Jews
residing in that country. There is no historical warrant for
this notion. It is, however, an established fact that this
version was made at Alexandria; that it was begun about 280
B.C., and finished about 200 or 150 B.C.; that it was the work
of a number of translators who differed greatly both in their
knowledge of Hebrew and of Greek; and that from the earliest
times it has borne the name of "The Septuagint", i.e., The
"This version, with all its defects, must be of the greatest
interest, (a) as preserving evidence for the text far more
ancient than the oldest Hebrew manuscripts; (b) as the means by
which the Greek Language was wedded to Hebrew thought; (c) as
the source of the great majority of quotations from the Old
Testament by writers of the New Testament.
(2.) The New Testament manuscripts fall into two divisions,
Uncials, written in Greek capitals, with no distinction at all
between the different words, and very little even between the
different lines; and Cursives, in small Greek letters, and with
divisions of words and lines. The change between the two kinds
of Greek writing took place about the tenth century. Only five
manuscripts of the New Testament approaching to completeness are
more ancient than this dividing date. The first, numbered A, is
the Alexandrian manuscript. Though brought to this country by
Cyril Lucar, patriarch of Constantinople, as a present to
Charles I., it is believed that it was written, not in that
capital, but in Alexandria; whence its title. It is now dated in
the fifth century A.D. The second, known as B, is the Vatican
manuscript. (See VATICANUS.) The Third, C, or the
Ephraem manuscript, was so called because it was written over
the writings of Ephraem, a Syrian theological author, a practice
very common in the days when writing materials were scarce and
dear. It is believed that it belongs to the fifth century, and
perhaps a slightly earlier period of it than the manuscript A.
The fourth, D, or the manuscript of Beza, was so called because
it belonged to the reformer Beza, who found it in the monastery
of St. Irenaeus at Lyons in 1562 A.D. It is imperfect, and is
dated in the sixth century. The fifth (called Aleph) is the
Sinaitic manuscript. (See SINAITICUS.)
3. The Syriac Versions. (See SYRIAC.)
4. The Latin Versions. A Latin version of the Scriptures,
called the "Old Latin," which originated in North Africa, was in
common use in the time of Tertullian (A.D. 150). Of this there
appear to have been various copies or recensions made. That made
in Italy, and called the Itala, was reckoned the most accurate.
This translation of the Old Testament seems to have been made
not from the original Hebrew but from the LXX.
This version became greatly corrupted by repeated
transcription, and to remedy the evil Jerome (A.D. 329-420) was
requested by Damasus, the bishop of Rome, to undertake a
complete revision of it. It met with opposition at first, but
was at length, in the seventh century, recognized as the
"Vulgate" version. It appeared in a printed from about A.D.
1455, the first book that ever issued from the press. The
Council of Trent (1546) declared it "authentic." It subsequently
underwent various revisions, but that which was executed (1592)
under the sanction of Pope Clement VIII. was adopted as the
basis of all subsequent editions. It is regarded as the sacred
original in the Roman Catholic Church. All modern European
versions have been more or less influenced by the Vulgate. This
version reads ipsa_ instead of _ipse in Gen. 3:15, "She shall
bruise thy head."
5. There are several other ancient versions which are of
importance for Biblical critics, but which we need not mention
particularly, such as the Ethiopic, in the fourth century, from
the LXX.; two Egyptian versions, about the fourth century, the
Memphitic, circulated in Lower Egypt, and the Thebaic, designed
for Upper Egypt, both from the Greek; the Gothic, written in the
German language, but with the Greek alphabet, by Ulphilas (died
A.D. 388), of which only fragments of the Old Testament remain;
the Armenian, about A.D. 400; and the Slavonic, in the ninth
century, for ancient Moravia. Other ancient versions, as the
Arabic, the Persian, and the Anglo-Saxon, may be mentioned.
6. The history of the English versions begins properly with
Wyckliffe. Portions, however, of the Scriptures were rendered
into Saxon (as the Gospel according to John, by Bede, A.D. 735),
and also into English (by Orme, called the "Ormulum," a portion
of the Gospels and of the Acts in the form of a metrical
paraphrase, toward the close of the seventh century), long
before Wyckliffe; but it is to him that the honour belongs of
having first rendered the whole Bible into English (A.D. 1380).
This version was made from the Vulgate, and renders Gen. 3:15
after that Version, "She shall trede thy head."
This was followed by Tyndale's translation (1525-1531); Miles
Coverdale's (1535-1553); Thomas Matthew's (1537), really,
however, the work of John Rogers, the first martyr under the
reign of Queen Mary. This was properly the first Authorized
Version, Henry VIII. having ordered a copy of it to be got for
every church. This took place in less than a year after Tyndale
was martyred for the crime of translating the Scriptures. In
1539 Richard Taverner published a revised edition of Matthew's
Bible. The Great Bible, so called from its great size, called
also Cranmer's Bible, was published in 1539 and 1568. In the
strict sense, the "Great Bible" is "the only authorized version;
for the Bishops' Bible and the present Bible [the A.V.] never
had the formal sanction of royal authority." Next in order was
the Geneva version (1557-1560); the Bishops' Bible (1568); the
Rheims and Douai versions, under Roman Catholic auspices (1582,
1609); the Authorized Version (1611); and the Revised Version of
the New Testament in 1880 and of the Old Testament in 1884.
(Judg. 5:7, 11). The Hebrew word thus rendered (perazon) means
habitations in the open country, unwalled villages (Deut. 3:5; 1
Sam. 6:18). Others, however, following the LXX. and the Vulgate
versions, render the word "rulers."
one of the most important products of Palestine. The first
mention of it is in the history of Noah (Gen. 9:20). It is
afterwards frequently noticed both in the Old and New
Testaments, and in the ruins of terraced vineyards there are
evidences that it was extensively cultivated by the Jews. It was
cultivated in Palestine before the Israelites took possession of
it. The men sent out by Moses brought with them from the Valley
of Eshcol a cluster of grapes so large that "they bare it
between two upon a staff" (Num. 13: 23). The vineyards of
En-gedi (Cant. 1:14), Heshbon, Sibmah, Jazer, Elealeh (Isa.
16:8-10; Jer. 48:32, 34), and Helbon (Ezek. 27:18), as well as
of Eshcol, were celebrated.
The Church is compared to a vine (Ps. 80:8), and Christ says
of himself, "I am the vine" (John 15:1). In one of his parables
also (Matt. 21:33) our Lord compares his Church to a vineyard
which "a certain householder planted, and hedged round about,"
Hos. 10:1 is rendered in the Revised Version, "Israel is a
luxuriant vine, which putteth forth his fruit," instead of
"Israel is an empty vine, he bringeth forth fruit unto himself,"
of the Authorized Version.
Heb. hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The
Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Ps. 69:21, a prophecy
fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:34). This
was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman
soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from
compassion, to assuage his thirst. Prov. 10:26 shows that there
was also a stronger vinegar, which was not fit for drinking. The
comparison, "vinegar upon nitre," probably means "vinegar upon
soda" (as in the marg. of the R.V.), which then effervesces.
Vine of Sodom
referred to only in Deut. 32:32. Among the many conjectures as
to this tree, the most probable is that it is the 'osher of the
Arabs, which abounds in the region of the Dead Sea. Its fruit
are the so-called "apples of Sodom," which, though beautiful to
the eye, are exceedingly bitter to the taste. (See EN-GEDI.) The people of Israel are referred to here by Moses
as being utterly corrupt, bringing forth only bitter fruit.
Heb. nebel (Isa. 5:12, R.V., "lute;" 14:11), a musical
instrument, usually rendered "psaltery" (q.v.)
In Job 20:16, Isa. 30:6; 59:5, the Heb. word eph'eh is thus
rendered. The Hebrew word, however, probably denotes a species
of poisonous serpents known by the Arabic name of 'el ephah.
Tristram has identified it with the sand viper, a species of
small size common in sandy regions, and frequently found under
stones by the shores of the Dead Sea. It is rapid in its
movements, and highly poisonous. In the New Testament echidne
is used (Matt. 3:7; 12:34; 23:33) for any poisonous snake. The
viper mentioned in Acts 28:3 was probably the vipera aspis, or
the Mediterranean viper. (See ADDER.)
In a prophecy concerning our Lord, Isaiah (7:14) says, "A virgin
[R.V. marg., 'the virgin'] shall conceive, and bear a son"
(comp. Luke 1:31-35). The people of the land of Zidon are thus
referred to by Isaiah (23:12), "O thou oppressed virgin,
daughter of Zidon;" and of the people of Israel, Jeremiah
(18:13) says, "The virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible
(Luke 1:22), a vivid apparition, not a dream (comp. Luke 24:23;
Acts 26:19; 2 Cor. 12:1).
voluntary promises which, when once made, were to be kept if the
thing vowed was right. They were made under a great variety of
circumstances (Gen. 28: 18-22; Lev. 7:16; Num. 30:2-13; Deut.
23:18; Judg. 11:30, 39; 1 Sam. 1:11; Jonah 1:16; Acts 18:18;
(1.) Heb. da'ah (Lev. 11:14). In the parallel passage (Deut.
14:13) the Hebrew word used is ra'ah, rendered "glede;" LXX.,
"gups;" Vulg., "milvus." A species of ravenous bird,
distinguished for its rapid flight. "When used without the
epithet 'red,' the name is commonly confined to the black kite.
The habits of the bird bear out the allusion in Isa. 34:15, for
it is, excepting during the winter three months, so numerous
everywhere in Palestine as to be almost gregarious." (See EAGLE.)
(2.) In Job 28:7 the Heb. 'ayyah is thus rendered. The word
denotes a clamorous and a keen-sighted bird of prey. In Lev.
11:14 and Deut. 14:13 it is rendered "kite" (q.v.).
thin cakes (Ex. 16:31; 29:2, 23; Lev. 2:4; 7:12; 8:26; Num.
6:15, 19) used in various offerings.
Rate of (mention only in Matt. 20:2); to be punctually paid
(Lev. 19:13; Deut. 24:14, 15); judgements threatened against the
withholding of (Jer. 22:13; Mal. 3:5; comp. James 5:4); paid in
money (Matt. 20:1-14); to Jacob in kind (Gen. 29:15, 20; 30:28;
31:7, 8, 41).
Heb. aghalah; so rendered in Gen. 45:19, 21, 27; 46:5; Num. 7:3,
7,8, but elsewhere rendered "cart" (1 Sam. 6:7, etc.). This
vehicle was used for peaceful purposes. In Ezek. 23:24, however,
it is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and denotes a
a section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews
assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate
condition (Ps. 79:1, 4, 5). The stones in this part of the wall
are of great size, and were placed, as is generally believed, in
the position in which they are now found in the time of Solomon.
"The congregation at the wailing-place is one of the most solemn
gatherings left to the Jewish Church, and as the writer gazed at
the motley concourse he experienced a feeling of sorrow that the
remnants of the chosen race should be heartlessly thrust outside
the sacred enclosure of their fathers' holy temple by men of an
alien race and an alien creed. Many of the elders, seated on the
ground, with their backs against the wall, on the west side of
the area, and with their faces turned toward the eternal house,
read out of their well-thumbed Hebrew books passages from the
prophetic writings, such as Isa. 64:9-12" (King's Recent
Discoveries, etc.). The wailing-place of the Jews, viewed in its
past spiritual and historic relations, is indeed "the saddest
nook in this vale of tears." (See LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF.)
Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled
villages" (Ezek. 38:11; Lev. 25:29-34). They were made thick and
strong (Num. 13:28; Deut. 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built
of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1
Kings 6:7; 7:9-12; 20:30; Mark 13:1, 2). The term is used
metaphorically of security and safety (Isa. 26:1; 60:18; Rev.
21:12-20). (See FENCE.)
of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their
rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:26-35).
They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to
cross the Jordan (Josh. 4:19; 5:6).
The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1-49. Many
of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified.
Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regarding
the "Wanderings," but it is enough for us to take the sacred
narrative as it stands, and rest assured that "He led them forth
by the right way" (Ps. 107:1-7, 33-35). (See WILDERNESS.)
The Israelites had to take possession of the Promised Land by
conquest. They had to engage in a long and bloody war before the
Canaanitish tribes were finally subdued. Except in the case of
Jericho and Ai, the war did not become aggressive till after the
death of Joshua. Till then the attack was always first made by
the Canaanites. Now the measure of the iniquity of the
Canaanites was full, and Israel was employed by God to sweep
them away from off the face of the earth. In entering on this
new stage of the war, the tribe of Judah, according to divine
direction, took the lead.
In the days of Saul and David the people of Israel engaged in
many wars with the nations around, and after the division of the
kingdom into two they often warred with each other. They had to
defend themselves also against the inroads of the Egyptians, the
Assyrians, and the Babylonians. The whole history of Israel from
first to last presents but few periods of peace.
The Christian life is represented as a warfare, and the
Christian graces are also represented under the figure of pieces
of armour (Eph. 6:11-17; 1 Thess. 5:8; 2 Tim. 2:3, 4). The final
blessedness of believers is attained as the fruit of victory
a prison (Gen. 40:3, 4); a watch-station (Isa. 21:8); a guard
Wars of the Lord, The Book of the
(Num. 21:14, 15), some unknown book so called (comp. Gen.
14:14-16; Ex. 17:8-16; Num. 14:40-45; 21:1-3, 21-25, 33-35; 31.
The wars here recorded might be thus designated).
(Mark 7:1-9). The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers
when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing
so, for the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the
ablutions prescribed by tradition, according to which "the
disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake,
washed their hands thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in
the hollow of the other, then placed the ten finger-tips
together, holding the hands up, so that any surplus water might
flow down to the elbow, and thence to the ground.'" To neglect
to do this had come to be regarded as a great sin, a sin equal
to the breach of any of the ten commandments. Moses had
commanded washings oft, but always for some definite cause; but
the Jews multiplied the legal observance till they formed a
large body of precepts. To such precepts about ceremonial
washing Mark here refers. (See ABLUTION.)
the periods into which the time between sunset and sunrise was
divided. They are so called because watchmen relieved each other
at each of these periods. There are frequent references in
Scripture to the duties of watchmen who were appointed to give
notice of the approach of an enemy (2 Sam. 18:24-27; 2 Kings
9:17-20; Isa. 21:5-9). They were sometimes placed for this
purpose on watch-towers (2 Kings 17:9; 18:8). Ministers or
teachers are also spoken of under this title (Jer. 6:17; Ezek.
33:2-9; Heb. 13:17).
The watches of the night were originally three in number, (1)
"the beginning of the watches" (Lam. 2:19); (2) "the middle
watch" (Judg. 7:19); and (3) "the morning watch" (Ex. 14:24; 1
Sam. 11:11), which extended from two o'clock to sunrise. But in
the New Testament we read of four watches, a division probably
introduced by the Romans (Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48; Luke 12:38).
(2 Cor. 6:5), lit. "sleeplessnesses," the result of "manual
labour, teaching, travelling, meditating, praying, cares, and
the like" (Meyer's Com.).
Water of jealousy
a phrase employed (not, however, in Scripture) to denote the
water used in the solemn ordeal prescribed by the law of Moses
(Num. 5:11-31) in cases of "jealousy."
Water of purification
used in cases of ceremonial cleansings at the consecration of
the Levites (Num. 8:7). It signified, figuratively, that
purifying of the heart which must characterize the servants of
Water of separation
used along with the ashes of a red heifer for the ceremonial
cleansing of persons defiled by contact with a dead body (Num.
(Ps. 42:7; marg. R.V., "cataracts"). If we regard this psalm as
descriptive of David's feelings when banished from Jerusalem by
the revolt of Absalom, this word may denote "waterfalls,"
inasmuch as Mahanaim, where he abode, was near the Jabbok, and
the region abounded with rapids and falls.
parts of peace-offerings were so called, because they were waved
by the priests (Ex. 29:24, 26, 27; Lev. 7:20-34; 8:27; 9:21;
10:14, 15, etc.), in token of a solemn special presentation to
God. They then became the property of the priests. The
first-fruits, a sheaf of barley, offered at the feast of
Pentecost (Lev. 23:17-20), and wheat-bread, the first-fruits of
the second harvest, offered at the Passover (10-14), were
Made by melting the combs of bees. Mentioned (Ps. 22:14; 68:2;
97:5; Micah 1:4) in illustration.
Among the Hebrews children (whom it was customary for the
mothers to nurse, Ex. 2:7-9; 1 Sam. 1:23; Cant. 8:1) were not
generally weaned till they were three or four years old.
(Heb. holedh), enumerated among unclean animals (Lev. 11:29).
Some think that this Hebrew word rather denotes the mole (Spalax
typhlus) common in Palestine. There is no sufficient reason,
however, to depart from the usual translation. The weasel tribe
are common also in Palestine.
Weaving was an art practised in very early times (Ex. 35:35).
The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa. 19:9; Ezek.
27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors.
In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised it (Ex. 26:1, 8;
28:4, 39; Lev. 13:47). It is referred to in subsequent times as
specially the women's work (2 Kings 23:7; Prov. 31:13, 24). No
mention of the loom is found in Scripture, but we read of the
"shuttle" (Job 7:6), "the pin" of the beam (Judg. 16:14), "the
web" (13, 14), and "the beam" (1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam. 21:19). The
rendering, "with pining sickness," in Isa. 38:12 (A.V.) should
be, as in the Revised Version, "from the loom," or, as in the
margin, "from the thrum." We read also of the "warp" and "woof"
(Lev. 13:48, 49, 51-53, 58, 59), but the Revised Version margin
has, instead of "warp," "woven or knitted stuff."