Three presidents are mentioned, of whom Daniel was the first
(Dan. 6:2-7). The name in the original is sarkhin, probably a
Persian word meaning perfects or ministers.
The Heb. kohen, Gr. hierus, Lat. sacerdos, always denote one who
At first every man was his own priest, and presented his own
sacrifices before God. Afterwards that office devolved on the
head of the family, as in the cases of Noah (Gen. 8:20), Abraham
(12:7; 13:4), Isaac (26:25), Jacob (31:54), and Job (Job 1:5).
The name first occurs as applied to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:18).
Under the Levitical arrangements the office of the priesthood
was limited to the tribe of Levi, and to only one family of that
tribe, the family of Aaron. Certain laws respecting the
qualifications of priests are given in Lev. 21:16-23. There are
ordinances also regarding the priests' dress (Ex. 28:40-43) and
the manner of their consecration to the office (29:1-37).
Their duties were manifold (Ex. 27:20, 21; 29:38-44; Lev.
6:12; 10:11; 24:8; Num. 10:1-10; Deut. 17:8-13; 33:10; Mal.
2:7). They represented the people before God, and offered the
various sacrifices prescribed in the law.
In the time of David the priests were divided into twenty-four
courses or classes (1 Chr. 24:7-18). This number was retained
after the Captivity (Ezra 2:36-39; Neh. 7:39-42).
"The priests were not distributed over the country, but lived
together in certain cities [forty-eight in number, of which six
were cities of refuge, q.v.], which had been assigned to their
use. From thence they went up by turns to minister in the temple
at Jerusalem. Thus the religious instruction of the people in
the country generally was left to the heads of families, until
the establishment of synagogues, an event which did not take
place till the return from the Captivity, and which was the main
source of the freedom from idolatry that became as marked a
feature of the Jewish people thenceforward as its practice had
been hitherto their great national sin."
The whole priestly system of the Jews was typical. It was a
shadow of which the body is Christ. The priests all prefigured
the great Priest who offered "one sacrifice for sins" "once for
all" (Heb. 10:10, 12). There is now no human priesthood. (See
Epistle to the Hebrews throughout.) The term "priest" is indeed
applied to believers (1 Pet. 2:9; Rev. 1:6), but in these cases
it implies no sacerdotal functions. All true believers are now
"kings and priests unto God." As priests they have free access
into the holiest of all, and offer up the sacrifices of praise
and thanksgiving, and the sacrifices of grateful service from
day to day.
the title generally applied to the chief men of the state. The
"princes of the provinces" (1 Kings 20:14) were the governors or
lord-lieutenants of the provinces. So also the "princes"
mentioned in Dan. 6:1, 3, 4, 6, 7 were the officers who
administered the affairs of the provinces; the "satraps" (as
rendered in R.V.). These are also called "lieutenants" (Esther
3:12; 8:9; R.V., "satraps"). The promised Saviour is called by
Daniel (9:25) "Messiah the Prince" (Heb. nagid); compare Acts
3:15; 5:31. The angel Micheal is called (Dan. 12:1) a "prince"
(Heb. sar, whence "Sarah," the "princes").
the wife of Aquila (Acts 18:2), who is never mentioned without
her. Her name sometimes takes the precedence of his (Rom. 16:3;
2 Tim. 4:19). She took part with Aquila (q.v.) in insturcting
Apollos (Acts 18:26).
The first occasion on which we read of a prison is in the
history of Joseph in Egypt. Then Potiphar, "Joseph's master,
took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's
prisoners were bound" (Gen. 39:20-23). The Heb. word here used
(sohar) means properly a round tower or fortress. It seems to
have been a part of Potiphar's house, a place in which state
prisoners were kept.
The Mosaic law made no provision for imprisonment as a
punishment. In the wilderness two persons were "put in ward"
(Lev. 24:12; Num. 15:34), but it was only till the mind of God
concerning them should be ascertained. Prisons and prisoners are
mentioned in the book of Psalms (69:33; 79:11; 142:7). Samson
was confined in a Philistine prison (Judg. 16:21, 25). In the
subsequent history of Israel frequent references are made to
prisons (1 Kings 22:27; 2 Kings 17:4; 25:27, 29; 2 Chr. 16:10;
Isa. 42:7; Jer. 32:2). Prisons seem to have been common in New
Testament times (Matt. 11:2; 25:36, 43). The apostles were put
into the "common prison" at the instance of the Jewish council
(Acts 5:18, 23; 8:3); and at Philippi Paul and Silas were thrust
into the "inner prison" (16:24; comp. 4:3; 12:4, 5).
or prediction, was one of the functions of the prophet. It has
been defined as a "miracle of knowledge, a declaration or
description or representation of something future, beyond the
power of human sagacity to foresee, discern, or conjecture."
The great prediction which runs like a golden thread through
the whole contents of the Old Testament is that regarding the
coming and work of the Messiah; and the great use of prophecy
was to perpetuate faith in his coming, and to prepare the world
for that event. But there are many subordinate and intermediate
prophecies also which hold an important place in the great chain
of events which illustrate the sovereignty and all-wise
overruling providence of God.
Then there are many prophecies regarding the Jewish nation,
its founder Abraham (Gen. 12:1-3; 13:16; 15:5; 17:2, 4-6, etc.),
and his posterity, Isaac and Jacob and their descendants (12:7;
13:14, 15, 17; 15:18-21; Ex. 3:8, 17), which have all been
fulfilled. The twenty-eighth chapter of Deuteronomy contains a
series of predictions which are even now in the present day
being fulfilled. In the writings of the prophets Isaiah
(2:18-21), Jeremiah (27:3-7; 29:11-14), Ezekiel (5:12; 8),
Daniel (8; 9:26, 27), Hosea (9:17), there are also many
prophecies regarding the events which were to befall that
There is in like manner a large number of prophecies relating
to those nations with which the Jews came into contact, as Tyre
(Ezek. 26:3-5, 14-21), Egypt (Ezek. 29:10, 15; 30:6, 12, 13),
Ethiopia (Nahum 3:8-10), Nineveh (Nahum 1:10; 2:8-13; 3:17-19),
Babylon (Isa. 13:4; Jer. 51:7; Isa. 44:27; Jer. 50:38; 51:36,
39, 57), the land of the Philistines (Jer. 47:4-7; Ezek.
25:15-17; Amos 1:6-8; Zeph. 2:4-7; Zech. 9:5-8), and of the four
great monarchies (Dan. 2:39, 40; 7:17-24; 8:9).
But the great body of Old Testament prophecy relates directly
to the advent of the Messiah, beginning with Gen. 3:15, the
first great promise, and extending in ever-increasing fulness
and clearness all through to the very close of the canon. The
Messianic prophecies are too numerous to be quoted. "To him gave
all the prophets witness." (Comp. Micah 5:2; Hag. 2:6-9; Isa.
7:14; 9:6, 7; 11:1, 2; 53; 60:10, 13; Ps. 16:11; 68:18.)
Many predictions also were delivered by Jesus and his
apostles. Those of Christ were very numerous. (Comp. Matt.
10:23:24; 11:23; 19:28; 21:43, 44; 24; 25:31-46; 26:17-35, 46,
64; Mark 9:1; 10:30; 13; 11:1-6, 14; 14:12-31, 42, 62; 16:17,
(Heb. nabi, from a root meaning "to bubble forth, as from a
fountain," hence "to utter", comp. Ps. 45:1). This Hebrew word
is the first and the most generally used for a prophet. In the
time of Samuel another word, ro'eh, "seer", began to be used
(1 Sam. 9:9). It occurs seven times in reference to Samuel.
Afterwards another word, hozeh, "seer" (2 Sam. 24:11), was
employed. In 1 Ch. 29:29 all these three words are used: "Samuel
the seer (ro'eh), Nathan the prophet (nabi'), Gad the seer"
(hozeh). In Josh. 13:22 Balaam is called (Heb.) a kosem
"diviner," a word used only of a false prophet.
The "prophet" proclaimed the message given to him, as the
"seer" beheld the vision of God. (See Num. 12:6, 8.) Thus a
prophet was a spokesman for God; he spake in God's name and by
his authority (Ex. 7:1). He is the mouth by which God speaks to
men (Jer. 1:9; Isa. 51:16), and hence what the prophet says is
not of man but of God (2 Pet. 1:20, 21; comp. Heb. 3:7; Acts
4:25; 28:25). Prophets were the immediate organs of God for the
communication of his mind and will to men (Deut. 18:18, 19). The
whole Word of God may in this general sense be spoken of as
prophetic, inasmuch as it was written by men who received the
revelation they communicated from God, no matter what its nature
might be. The foretelling of future events was not a necessary
but only an incidental part of the prophetic office. The great
task assigned to the prophets whom God raised up among the
people was "to correct moral and religious abuses, to proclaim
the great moral and religious truths which are connected with
the character of God, and which lie at the foundation of his
Any one being a spokesman for God to man might thus be called
a prophet. Thus Enoch, Abraham, and the patriarchs, as bearers
of God's message (Gen. 20:7; Ex. 7:1; Ps. 105:15), as also Moses
(Deut. 18:15; 34:10; Hos. 12:13), are ranked among the prophets.
The seventy elders of Israel (Num. 11:16-29), "when the spirit
rested upon them, prophesied;" Asaph and Jeduthun "prophesied
with a harp" (1 Chr. 25:3). Miriam and Deborah were prophetesses
(Ex. 15:20; Judg. 4:4). The title thus has a general application
to all who have messages from God to men.
But while the prophetic gift was thus exercised from the
beginning, the prophetical order as such began with Samuel.
Colleges, "schools of the prophets", were instituted for the
training of prophets, who were constituted, a distinct order (1
Sam. 19:18-24; 2 Kings 2:3, 15; 4:38), which continued to the
close of the Old Testament. Such "schools" were established at
Ramah, Bethel, Gilgal, Gibeah, and Jericho. The "sons" or
"disciples" of the prophets were young men (2 Kings 5:22; 9:1,
4) who lived together at these different "schools" (4:38-41).
These young men were taught not only the rudiments of secular
knowledge, but they were brought up to exercise the office of
prophet, "to preach pure morality and the heart-felt worship of
Jehovah, and to act along and co-ordinately with the priesthood
and monarchy in guiding the state aright and checking all
attempts at illegality and tyranny."
In New Testament times the prophetical office was continued.
Our Lord is frequently spoken of as a prophet (Luke 13:33;
24:19). He was and is the great Prophet of the Church. There was
also in the Church a distinct order of prophets (1 Cor. 12:28;
Eph. 2:20; 3:5), who made new revelations from God. They
differed from the "teacher," whose office it was to impart
truths already revealed.
Of the Old Testament prophets there are sixteen, whose
prophecies form part of the inspired canon. These are divided
into four groups:
(1.) The prophets of the northern kingdom (Israel), viz.,
Hosea, Amos, Joel, Jonah.
(2.) The prophets of Judah, viz., Isaiah, Jeremiah, Obadiah,
Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah.
(3.) The prophets of Captivity, viz., Ezekiel and Daniel.
(4.) The prophets of the Restoration, viz., Haggai, Zechariah,
that by which God is rendered propitious, i.e., by which it
becomes consistent with his character and government to pardon
and bless the sinner. The propitiation does not procure his love
or make him loving; it only renders it consistent for him to
execise his love towards sinners.
In Rom. 3:25 and Heb. 9:5 (A.V., "mercy-seat") the Greek word
hilasterion is used. It is the word employed by the LXX.
translators in Ex. 25:17 and elsewhere as the equivalent for the
Hebrew kapporeth, which means "covering," and is used of the
lid of the ark of the covenant (Ex. 25:21; 30:6). This Greek
word (hilasterion) came to denote not only the mercy-seat or lid
of the ark, but also propitation or reconciliation by blood. On
the great day of atonement the high priest carried the blood of
the sacrifice he offered for all the people within the veil and
sprinkled with it the "mercy-seat," and so made propitiation.
In 1 John 2:2; 4:10, Christ is called the "propitiation for
our sins." Here a different Greek word is used (hilasmos).
Christ is "the propitiation," because by his becoming our
substitute and assuming our obligations he expiated our guilt,
covered it, by the vicarious punishment which he endured. (Comp.
Heb. 2:17, where the expression "make reconciliation" of the
A.V. is more correctly in the R.V. "make propitiation.")
Proportion of faith
(Rom. 12:6). Paul says here that each one was to exercise his
gift of prophecy, i.e., of teaching, "according to the
proportion of faith." The meaning is, that the utterances of the
"prophet" were not to fluctuate according to his own impulses or
independent thoughts, but were to be adjusted to the truth
revealed to him as a beliver, i.e., were to be in accordance
In post-Reformation times this phrase was used as meaning that
all Scripture was to be interpreted with reference to all other
Scripture, i.e., that no words or expressions were to be
isolated or interpreted in a way contrary to its general
teaching. This was also called the "analogy of faith."
is used in the LXX. for "stranger" (1 Chr. 22:2), i.e., a comer
to Palestine; a sojourner in the land (Ex. 12:48; 20:10; 22:21),
and in the New Testament for a convert to Judaism. There were
such converts from early times (Isa. 56:3; Neh. 10:28; Esther
8:17). The law of Moses made specific regulations regarding the
admission into the Jewish church of such as were not born
Israelites (Ex. 20:10; 23:12; 12:19, 48; Deut. 5:14; 16:11, 14,
etc.). The Kenites, the Gibeonites, the Cherethites, and the
Pelethites were thus admitted to the privileges of Israelites.
Thus also we hear of individual proselytes who rose to positions
of prominence in Israel, as of Doeg the Edomite, Uriah the
Hittite, Araunah the Jebusite, Zelek the Ammonite, Ithmah and
Ebedmelech the Ethiopians.
In the time of Solomon there were one hundred and fifty-three
thousand six hundred strangers in the land of Israel (1 Chr.
22:2; 2 Chr. 2:17, 18). And the prophets speak of the time as
coming when the strangers shall share in all the privileges of
Israel (Ezek. 47:22; Isa. 2:2; 11:10; 56:3-6; Micah 4:1).
Accordingly, in New Testament times, we read of proselytes in
the synagogues, (Acts 10:2, 7; 13:42, 43, 50; 17:4; 18:7; Luke
7:5). The "religious proselytes" here spoken of were proselytes
of righteousness, as distinguished from proselytes of the gate.
The distinction between "proselytes of the gate" (Ex. 20:10)
and "proselytes of righteousness" originated only with the
rabbis. According to them, the "proselytes of the gate" (half
proselytes) were not required to be circumcised nor to comply
with the Mosaic ceremonial law. They were bound only to conform
to the so-called seven precepts of Noah, viz., to abstain from
idolatry, blasphemy, bloodshed, uncleaness, the eating of blood,
theft, and to yield obedience to the authorities. Besides these
laws, however, they were required to abstain from work on the
Sabbath, and to refrain from the use of leavened bread during
the time of the Passover.
The "proselytes of righteousness", religious or devout
proselytes (Acts 13:43), were bound to all the doctrines and
precepts of the Jewish economy, and were members of the
synagogue in full communion.
The name "proselyte" occurs in the New Testament only in Matt.
23:15; Acts 2:10; 6:5; 13:43. The name by which they are
commonly designated is that of "devout men," or men "fearing
God" or "worshipping God."
a trite maxim; a similitude; a parable. The Hebrew word thus
rendered (mashal) has a wide signification. It comes from a root
meaning "to be like," "parable." Rendered "proverb" in Isa.
14:4; Hab. 2:6; "dark saying" in Ps. 49:4, Num. 12:8. Ahab's
defiant words in answer to the insolent demands of Benhadad,
"Let not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he
that putteth it off," is a well known instance of a proverbial
saying (1 Kings 20:11).
Proverbs, Book of
a collection of moral and philosophical maxims of a wide range
of subjects presented in a poetic form. This book sets forth the
"philosophy of practical life. It is the sign to us that the
Bible does not despise common sense and discretion. It impresses
upon us in the most forcible manner the value of intelligence
and prudence and of a good education. The whole strength of the
Hebrew language and of the sacred authority of the book is
thrown upon these homely truths. It deals, too, in that refined,
discriminating, careful view of the finer shades of human
character so often overlooked by theologians, but so necessary
to any true estimate of human life" (Stanley's Jewish Church).
As to the origin of this book, "it is probable that Solomon
gathered and recast many proverbs which sprang from human
experience in preceeding ages and were floating past him on the
tide of time, and that he also elaborated many new ones from the
material of his own experience. Towards the close of the book,
indeed, are preserved some of Solomon's own sayings that seem to
have fallen from his lips in later life and been gathered by
other hands' (Arnot's Laws from Heaven, etc.)
This book is usually divided into three parts:
of ch. 1-9, which contain an exhibition of wisdom as the highest
(2.) Consisting of ch. 10-24.
(3.) Containing proverbs of Solomon "which the men of
Hezekiah, the king of Judah, collected" (ch. 25-29).
These are followed by two supplements, (1) "The words of Agur"
(ch. 30); and (2) "The words of king Lemuel" (ch. 31).
Solomon is said to have written three thousand proverbs, and
those contained in this book may be a selection from these (1
Kings 4:32). In the New Testament there are thirty-five direct
quotations from this book or allusions to it.
literally means foresight, but is generally used to denote God's
preserving and governing all things by means of second causes
(Ps. 18:35; 63:8; Acts 17:28; Col. 1:17; Heb. 1:3). God's
providence extends to the natural world (Ps. 104:14; 135:5-7;
Acts 14:17), the brute creation (Ps. 104:21-29; Matt. 6:26;
10:29), and the affairs of men (1 Chr. 16:31; Ps. 47:7; Prov.
21:1; Job 12:23; Dan. 2:21; 4:25), and of individuals (1 Sam.
2:6; Ps. 18:30; Luke 1:53; James 4:13-15). It extends also to
the free actions of men (Ex. 12:36; 1 Sam. 24:9-15; Ps. 33:14,
15; Prov. 16:1; 19:21; 20:24; 21:1), and things sinful (2 Sam.
16:10; 24:1; Rom. 11:32; Acts 4:27, 28), as well as to their
good actions (Phil. 2:13; 4:13; 2 Cor. 12:9, 10; Eph. 2:10; Gal.
As regards sinful actions of men, they are represented as
occurring by God's permission (Gen. 45:5; 50:20. Comp. 1 Sam.
6:6; Ex. 7:13; 14:17; Acts 2:3; 3:18; 4:27, 28), and as
controlled (Ps. 76:10) and overruled for good (Gen. 50:20; Acts
3:13). God does not cause or approve of sin, but only limits,
restrains, overrules it for good.
The mode of God's providential government is altogether
unexplained. We only know that it is a fact that God does govern
all his creatures and all their actions; that this government is
universal (Ps. 103:17-19), particular (Matt. 10:29-31),
efficacious (Ps. 33:11; Job 23:13), embraces events apparently
contingent (Prov. 16:9, 33; 19:21; 21:1), is consistent with his
own perfection (2 Tim. 2:13), and to his own glory (Rom. 9:17;
The psalms are the production of various authors. "Only a
portion of the Book of Psalms claims David as its author. Other
inspired poets in successive generations added now one now
another contribution to the sacred collection, and thus in the
wisdom of Providence it more completely reflects every phase of
human emotion and circumstances than it otherwise could." But it
is specially to David and his contemporaries that we owe this
precious book. In the "titles" of the psalms, the genuineness of
which there is no sufficient reason to doubt, 73 are ascribed to
David. Peter and John (Acts 4:25) ascribe to him also the second
psalm, which is one of the 48 that are anonymous. About
two-thirds of the whole collection have been ascribed to David.
Psalms 39, 62, and 77 are addressed to Jeduthun, to be sung
after his manner or in his choir. Psalms 50 and 73-83 are
addressed to Asaph, as the master of his choir, to be sung in
the worship of God. The "sons of Korah," who formed a leading
part of the Kohathite singers (2 Chr. 20:19), were intrusted
with the arranging and singing of Ps. 42, 44-49, 84, 85, 87, and
In Luke 24:44 the word "psalms" means the Hagiographa, i.e.,
the holy writings, one of the sections into which the Jews
divided the Old Testament. (See BIBLE.)
None of the psalms can be proved to have been of a later date
than the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, hence the whole collection
extends over a period of about 1,000 years. There are in the New
Testament 116 direct quotations from the Psalter.
The Psalter is divided, after the analogy of the Pentateuch,
into five books, each closing with a doxology or benediction:
(1.) The first book comprises the first 41 psalms, all of
which are ascribed to David except 1, 2, 10, and 33, which,
though anonymous, may also be ascribed to him.
(2.) Book second consists of the next 31 psalms (42-72), 18 of
which are ascribed to David and 1 to Solomon (the 72nd). The
rest are anonymous.
(3.) The third book contains 17 psalms (73-89), of which the
86th is ascribed to David, the 88th to Heman the Ezrahite, and
the 89th to Ethan the Ezrahite.
(4.) The fourth book also contains 17 psalms (90-106), of
which the 90th is ascribed to Moses, and the 101st and 103rd to
(5.) The fifth book contains the remaining psalms, 44 in
number. Of these, 15 are ascribed to David, and the 127th to
Ps. 136 is generally called "the great hallel." But the Talmud
includes also Ps. 120-135. Ps. 113-118, inclusive, constitute
the "hallel" recited at the three great feasts, at the new moon,
and on the eight days of the feast of dedication.
"It is presumed that these several collections were made at
times of high religious life: the first, probably, near the
close of David's life; the second in the days of Solomon; the
third by the singers of Jehoshaphat (2 Chr. 20:19); the fourth
by the men of Hezekiah (29, 30, 31); and the fifth in the days
The Mosaic ritual makes no provision for the service of song
in the worship of God. David first taught the Church to sing the
praises of the Lord. He first introduced into the ritual of the
tabernacle music and song.
Divers names are given to the psalms.
(1.) Some bear the
Hebrew designation shir (Gr. ode, a song). Thirteen have this
title. It means the flow of speech, as it were, in a straight
line or in a regular strain. This title includes secular as well
as sacred song.
(2.) Fifty-eight psalms bear the designation (Heb.) mitsmor
(Gr. psalmos, a psalm), a lyric ode, or a song set to music; a
sacred song accompanied with a musical instrument.
(3.) Ps. 145, and many others, have the designation (Heb.)
tehillah (Gr. hymnos, a hymn), meaning a song of praise; a
song the prominent thought of which is the praise of God.
(4.) Six psalms (16, 56-60) have the title (Heb.) michtam
(5.) Ps. 7 and Hab. 3 bear the title (Heb.) shiggaion
a musical instrument, supposed to have been a kind of lyre, or a
harp with twelve strings. The Hebrew word nebhel, so rendered,
is translated "viol" in Isa. 5:12 (R.V., "lute"); 14:11. In Dan.
3:5, 7, 10, 15, the word thus rendered is Chaldaic, pesanterin,
which is supposed to be a word of Greek origin denoting an
instrument of the harp kind.
a maritime city of Galilee (Acts 21:7). It was originally called
"Accho" (q.v.), and received the name Ptolemais from Ptolemy
Soter when he was in possession of Coele-Syria.
(1.) One of the two midwives who feared God, and
refused to kill the Hebrew male children at their birth (Ex.
(2.) A descendant of Issachar (Judg. 10:1).
one who farmed the taxes (e.g., Zacchaeus, Luke 19:2) to be
levied from a town or district, and thus undertook to pay to the
supreme government a certain amount. In order to collect the
taxes, the publicans employed subordinates (5:27; 15:1; 18:10),
who, for their own ends, were often guilty of extortion and
peculation. In New Testament times these taxes were paid to the
Romans, and hence were regarded by the Jews as a very heavy
burden, and hence also the collectors of taxes, who were
frequently Jews, were hated, and were usually spoken of in very
opprobrious terms. Jesus was accused of being a "friend of
publicans and sinners" (Luke 7:34).
"the chief man of the island" of Malta (Acts 28:7), who
courteously entertained Paul and his shipwrecked companions for
three days, till they found a more permanent place of residence;
for they remained on the island for three months, till the
stormy season had passed. The word here rendered "chief man"
(protos) is supposed by some to be properly a Maltese term, the
official title of the governor.
bashful, a Christian at Rome, who sent his greetings to Timothy
(2 Tim. 4:21). (See CLAUDIA.)
(1.) An Assyrian king. It has been a question whether he was
identical with Tiglath-pileser III. (q.v.), or was his
predecessor. The weight of evidence is certainly in favour of
their identity. Pul was the throne-name he bore in Babylonia as
king of Babylon, and Tiglath-pileser the throne-name he bore as
king of Assyria. He was the founder of what is called the second
Assyrian empire. He consolidated and organized his conquests on
a large scale. He subdued Northern Syria and Hamath, and the
kings of Syria rendered him homage and paid him tribute. His
ambition was to found in Western Asia a kingdom which should
embrace the whole civilized world, having Nineveh as its centre.
Menahem, king of Israel, gave him the enormous tribute of a
thousand talents of silver, "that his hand might be with him" (2
Kings 15:19; 1 Chr. 5:26). The fact that this tribute could be
paid showed the wealthy condition of the little kingdom of
Israel even in this age of disorder and misgovernment. Having
reduced Syria, he turned his arms against Babylon, which he
subdued. The Babylonian king was slain, and Babylon and other
Chaldean cities were taken, and Pul assumed the title of "King
of Sumer [i.e., Shinar] and Accad." He was succeeded by
(2.) A geographical name in Isa. 66:19. Probably = Phut (Gen.
10:6; Jer. 46:9, R.V. "Put;" Ezek. 27:10).
(Neh. 8:4). (See EZRA.)
(Dan. 1:12, 16), R.V. "herbs," vegetable food in general.
The New Testament lays down the general principles of good
government, but contains no code of laws for the punishment of
offenders. Punishment proceeds on the principle that there is an
eternal distinction between right and wrong, and that this
distinction must be maintained for its own sake. It is not
primarily intended for the reformation of criminals, nor for the
purpose of deterring others from sin. These results may be
gained, but crime in itself demands punishment. (See MURDER; THEFT.)
Endless, of the impenitent and unbelieving. The rejection of
this doctrine "cuts the ground from under the gospel...blots out
the attribute of retributive justice; transmutes sin into
misfortune instead of guilt; turns all suffering into
chastisement; converts the piacular work of Christ into moral
influence...The attempt to retain the evangelical theology in
connection with it is futile" (Shedd).
the process by which a person unclean, according to the
Levitical law, and thereby cut off from the sanctuary and the
festivals, was restored to the enjoyment of all these
The great annual purification of the people was on the Day of
But in the details of daily life there were special causes of
cermonial uncleanness which were severally provided for by
ceremonial laws enacted for each separate case. For example, the
case of the leper (Lev. 13, 14), and of the house defiled by
leprosy (14:49-53; see also Matt. 8:2-4). Uncleanness from
touching a dead body (Num. 19:11; Hos. 9:4; Hag. 2:13; Matt.
23:27; Luke 11:44). The case of the high priest and of the
Nazarite (Lev. 21:1-4, 10, 11; Num. 6:6, 7; Ezek. 44:25).
Purification was effected by bathing and washing the clothes
(Lev. 14:8, 9); by washing the hands (Deut. 21:6; Matt. 27:24);
washing the hands and feet (Ex. 30:18-21; Heb. 6:2, "baptisms",
R.V. marg., "washings;" 9:10); sprinkling with blood and water
(Ex. 24:5-8; Heb. 9:19), etc. Allusions to this rite are found
in Ps. 26:6; 51:7; Ezek. 36:25; Heb. 10:22.
a lot, lots, a festival instituted by the Jews (Esther 9:24-32)
in ironical commemoration of Haman's consultation of the Pur (a
Persian word), for the purpose of ascertaining the auspicious
day for executing his cruel plot against their nation. It became
a national institution by the common consent of the Jews, and is
observed by them to the present day, on the 14th and 15th of the
month Adar, a month before the Passover.
(1.) Gr. balantion, a bag (Luke 10:4; 22:35, 36).
(2.) Gr. zone, properly a girdle (Matt. 10:9; Mark 6:8), a
money-belt. As to our Lord's sending forth his disciples without
money in their purses, the remark has been made that in this
"there was no departure from the simple manners of the country.
At this day the farmer sets out on excursions quite as extensive
without a para in his purse; and a modern Moslem prophet of
Tarshisha thus sends forth his apostles over this identical
region. No traveller in the East would hestitate to throw
himself on the hospitality of any village." Thomson's Land and
the Book. (See SCRIP.)
a city on the coast of Campania, on the north shore of a bay
running north from the Bay of Naples, at which Paul landed on
his way to Rome, from which it was distant 170 miles. Here he
tarried for seven days (Acts 28:13, 14). This was the great
emporium for the Alexandrian corn ships. Here Paul and his
companions began their journey, by the "Appian Way," to Rome. It
is now called Pozzuoli. The remains of a huge amphitheatre, and
of the quay at which Paul landed, may still be seen here.
(1.) One of the sons of Ham (Gen. 10:6).
(2.) A land or people from among whom came a portion of the
mercenary troops of Egypt, Jer. 46:9 (A.V., "Libyans," but
correctly, R.V., "Put"); Ezek. 27:10; 30:5 (A.V., "Libya;" R.V.,
"Put"); 38:5; Nahum 3:9.
Heb. dishon, "springing", (Deut. 14:5), one of the animals
permitted for food. It is supposed to be the Antelope addax. It
is described as "a large animal, over 3 1/2 feet high at the
shoulder, and, with its gently-twisted horns, 2 1/2 feet long.
Its colour is pure white, with the exception of a short black
mane, and a tinge of tawny on the shoulders and back.",
Tristram's Natural History.
The Israelites were twice relieved in their privation by a
miraculous supply of quails, (1) in the wilderness of Sin (Ex.
16:13), and (2) again at Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.), Num. 11:31.
God "rained flesh upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as
the sand of the sea" (Ps. 78:27). The words in Num. 11:31,
according to the Authorized Version, appear to denote that the
quails lay one above another to the thickness of two cubits
above the ground. The Revised Version, however, reads, "about
two cubits above the face of the earth", i.e., the quails flew
at this height, and were easily killed or caught by the hand.
Being thus secured in vast numbers by the people, they "spread
them all abroad" (11:32) in order to salt and dry them.
These birds (the Coturnix vulgaris of naturalists) are found
in countless numbers on the shores of the Mediterranean, and
their annual migration is an event causing great excitement.
a mountain some 1,200 feet high, about 7 miles north-west of
Jericho, the traditional scene of our Lord's temptation (Matt.
(1.) The "Royal Quarries" (not found in Scripture) is the name
given to the vast caverns stretching far underneath the northern
hill, Bezetha, on which Jerusalem is built. Out of these mammoth
caverns stones, a hard lime-stone, have been quarried in ancient
times for the buildings in the city, and for the temples of
Solomon, Zerubbabel, and Herod. Huge blocks of stone are still
found in these caves bearing the marks of pick and chisel. The
general appearance of the whole suggests to the explorer the
idea that the Phoenician quarrymen have just suspended their
work. The supposition that the polished blocks of stone for
Solomon's temple were sent by Hiram from Lebanon or Tyre is not
supported by any evidence (comp. 1 Kings 5:8). Hiram sent masons
and stone-squarers to Jerusalem to assist Solomon's workmen in
their great undertaking, but did not send stones to Jerusalem,
where, indeed, they were not needed, as these royal quarries
(2.) The "quarries" (Heb. pesilim) by Gilgal (Judg. 3:19),
from which Ehud turned back for the purpose of carrying out his
design to put Eglon king of Moab to death, were probably the
"graven images" (as the word is rendered by the LXX. and the
Vulgate and in the marg. A.V. and R.V.), or the idol temples the
Moabites had erected at Gilgal, where the children of Israel
first encamped after crossing the Jordan. The Hebrew word is
rendered "graven images" in Deut. 7:25, and is not elsewhere
fourth, a Corinthian Christian who sent by Paul his salutations
to friends at Rome (Rom. 16:23).
a band of four soldiers. Peter was committed by Herod to the
custody of four quaternions, i.e., one quaternion for each watch
of the night (Acts 12:4). Thus every precaution was taken
against his escape from prison. Two of each quaternion were in
turn stationed at the door (12:6), and to two the apostle was
chained according to Roman custom.
No explicit mention of queens is made till we read of the "queen
of Sheba." The wives of the kings of Israel are not so
designated. In Ps. 45:9, the Hebrew for "queen" is not malkah,
one actually ruling like the Queen of Sheba, but shegal, which
simply means the king's wife. In 1 Kings 11:19, Pharaoh's wife
is called "the queen," but the Hebrew word so rendered (g'birah)
is simply a title of honour, denoting a royal lady, used
sometimes for "queen-mother" (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chron. 15:16). In
Cant. 6:8, 9, the king's wives are styled "queens" (Heb.
In the New Testament we read of the "queen of the south",
i.e., Southern Arabia, Sheba (Matt. 12:42; Luke 11:31) and the
"queen of the Ethiopians" (Acts 8:27), Candace.
Queen of heaven
(Jer. 7:18; 44:17, 25), the moon, worshipped by the Assyrians as
the receptive power in nature.
found only in Acts 27:17, the rendering of the Greek Syrtis. On
the north coast of Africa were two localities dangerous to
sailors, called the Greater and Lesser Syrtis. The former of
these is probably here meant. It lies between Tripoli and Barca,
and near Cyrene. The Lesser Syrtis lay farther to the west.
the sheath for arrows. The Hebrew word (aspah) thus commonly
rendered is found in Job 39:23; Ps. 127:5; Isa. 22:6; 49:2; Jer.
5:16; Lam. 3:13. In Gen. 27:3 this word is the rendering of the
Hebrew teli, which is supposed rather to mean a suspended
weapon, literally "that which hangs from one", i.e., is
suspended from the shoulder or girdle.
from the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are
not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament
was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into
chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When
Luke (20:37) refers to Ex. 3:6, he quotes from "Moses at the
bush", i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the
bush. So also Mark (2:26) refers to 1 Sam. 21:1-6, in the words,
"in the days of Abiathar;" and Paul (Rom. 11:2) refers to 1
Kings ch. 17-19, in the words, "in Elias", i.e., in the portion
of the history regarding Elias.
In general, the New Testament writers quote from the
Septuagint (q.v.) version of the Old Testament, as it was then
in common use among the Jews. But it is noticeable that these
quotations are not made in any uniform manner. Sometimes, e.g.,
the quotation does not agree literally either with the LXX. or
the Hebrew text. This occurs in about one hundred instances.
Sometimes the LXX. is literally quoted (in about ninety
instances), and sometimes it is corrected or altered in the
quotations (in over eighty instances).
Quotations are sometimes made also directly from the Hebrew
text (Matt. 4:15, 16; John 19:37; 1 Cor. 15:54). Besides the
quotations made directly, there are found numberless allusions,
more or less distinct, showing that the minds of the New
Testament writers were filled with the expressions and ideas as
well as historical facts recorded in the Old.
There are in all two hundred and eighty-three direct
quotations from the Old Testament in the New, but not one clear
and certain case of quotation from the Apocrypha (q.v.).
Besides quotations in the New from the Old Testament, there
are in Paul's writings three quotations from certain Greek
poets, Acts 17:28; 1 Cor. 15:33; Titus 1:12. These quotations
are memorials of his early classical education.
(1.) One of the sons of Cush (Gen. 10:7). (2.) A
country which traded with Tyre (Ezek. 27:22).
thunder of the Lord, one of the princes who returned from the
Exile (Neh. 7:7); called also Reelaiah (Ezra 2:2).
(Ex. 1:11). (See RAMESES.)
or Rab'bath, great.
(1.) "Rabbath of the children of Ammon," the
chief city of the Ammonites, among the eastern hills, some 20
miles east of the Jordan, on the southern of the two streams
which united with the Jabbok. Here the bedstead of Og was
preserved (Deut. 3:11), perhaps as a trophy of some victory
gained by the Ammonites over the king of Bashan. After David had
subdued all their allies in a great war, he sent Joab with a
strong force to take their city. For two years it held out
against its assailants. It was while his army was engaged in
this protracted siege that David was guilty of that deed of
shame which left a blot on his character and cast a gloom over
the rest of his life. At length, having taken the "royal city"
(or the "city of waters," 2 Sam. 12:27, i.e., the lower city on
the river, as distinguished from the citadel), Joab sent for
David to direct the final assault (11:1; 12:26-31). The city was
given up to plunder, and the people were ruthlessly put to
death, and "thus did he with all the cities of the children of
Ammon." The destruction of Rabbath was the last of David's
conquests. His kingdom now reached its farthest limits (2 Sam.
8:1-15; 1 Chr. 18:1-15). The capture of this city is referred to
by Amos (1:14), Jeremiah (49:2, 3), and Ezekiel (21:20; 25:5).
(2.) A city in the hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:60),
possibly the ruin Rubba, six miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin.
my master, a title of dignity given by the Jews to their doctors
of the law and their distinguished teachers. It is sometimes
applied to Christ (Matt. 23:7, 8; Mark 9:5 (R.V.); John 1:38,
49; 3:2; 6:25, etc.); also to John (3:26).
(id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament (Mark 10:51, A.V.,
"Lord," R.V., "Rabboni;" John 20:16). It was the most honourable
of all the titles.
Assyrian Rab-mugi, "chief physician," "who was attached to the
king (Jer. 39:3, 13), the title of one of Sennacherib's officers
sent with messages to Hezekiah and the people of Jerusalem (2
Kings 18:17-19:13; Isa. 36:12-37:13) demanding the surrender of
the city. He was accompanied by a "great army;" but his mission
chief of the Heads, one of the three officers whom Sennacherib
sent from Lachish with a threatening message to Jerusalem (2
Kings 18:17; Jer. 39:3, 13).
chief of the princes, the name given to the chief cup-bearer or
the vizier of the Assyrian court; one of Sennacherib's
messengers to Hezekiah. See the speech he delivered, in the
Hebrew language, in the hearing of all the people, as he stood
near the wall on the north side of the city (2 Kings 18:17-37).
He and the other envoys returned to their master and reported
that Hezekiah and his people were obdurate, and would not
vain, empty, worthless, only found in Matt. 5:22. The Jews used
it as a word of contempt. It is derived from a root meaning "to
=Rahab, a name found in the genealogy of our Lord (Matt. 1:5).
traffic, a town in the tribe of Judah, to which David sent
presents from the spoils of his enemies (1 Sam. 30:29).
ewe, "the daughter", "the somewhat petulant, peevish, and
self-willed though beautiful younger daughter" of Laban, and one
of Jacob's wives (Gen. 29:6, 28). He served Laban fourteen years
for her, so deep was Jacob's affection for her. She was the
mother of Joseph (Gen. 30:22-24). Afterwards, on Jacob's
departure from Mesopotamia, she took with her her father's
teraphim (31:34, 35). As they journeyed on from Bethel, Rachel
died in giving birth to Benjamin (35:18, 19), and was buried "in
the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. And Jacob set a pillar
upon her grave". Her sepulchre is still regarded with great
veneration by the Jews. Its traditional site is about half a
mile from Jerusalem.
This name is used poetically by Jeremiah (31:15-17) to denote
God's people mourning under their calamities. This passage is
also quoted by Matthew as fulfilled in the lamentation at
Bethlehem on account of the slaughter of the infants there at
the command of Herod (Matt. 2:17, 18).
friend of God, (Num. 10:29)=Reuel (q.v.), Ex. 2:18, the
father-in-law of Moses, and probably identical with Jethro
insolence; pride, a poetical name applied to Egypt in Ps. 87:4;
89:10; Isa. 51:9, as "the proud one."
Rahab, (Heb. Rahab; i.e., "broad," "large"). When the Hebrews
were encamped at Shittim, in the "Arabah" or Jordan valley
opposite Jericho, ready to cross the river, Joshua, as a final
preparation, sent out two spies to "spy the land." After five
days they returned, having swum across the river, which at this
season, the month Abib, overflowed its banks from the melting of
the snow on Lebanon. The spies reported how it had fared with
them (Josh. 2:1-7). They had been exposed to danger in Jericho,
and had been saved by the fidelity of Rahab the harlot, to whose
house they had gone for protection. When the city of Jericho
fell (6:17-25), Rahab and her whole family were preserved
according to the promise of the spies, and were incorporated
among the Jewish people. She afterwards became the wife of
Salmon, a prince of the tribe of Judah (Ruth 4:21; 1 Chr. 2:11;
Matt. 1:5). "Rahab's being asked to bring out the spies to the
soldiers (Josh. 2:3) sent for them, is in strict keeping with
Eastern manners, which would not permit any man to enter a
woman's house without her permission. The fact of her covering
the spies with bundles of flax which lay on her house-roof (2:6)
is an 'undesigned coincidence' which strictly corroborates the
narrative. It was the time of the barley harvest, and flax and
barley are ripe at the same time in the Jordan valley, so that
the bundles of flax stalks might have been expected to be drying
just then" (Geikie's Hours, etc., ii., 390).
merciful, one of the descendants of Caleb, the son of Hezron (1
There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of
(1.) Yoreh (Hos. 6:3), or moreh (Joel 2:23),
denoting the former or the early rain. (2.) Melqosh, the "latter
rain" (Prov. 16:15). (3.) Geshem, the winter rain, "the rains."
The heavy winter rain is mentioned in Gen. 7:12; Ezra 10:9;
Cant. 2:11. The "early" or "former" rains commence in autumn in
the latter part of October or beginning of November (Deut.
11:14; Joel 2:23; comp. Jer. 3:3), and continue to fall heavily
for two months. Then the heavy "winter rains" fall from the
middle of December to March. There is no prolonged fair weather
in Palestine between October and March. The "latter" or spring
rains fall in March and April, and serve to swell the grain then
coming to maturity (Deut. 11:14; Hos. 6:3). After this there is
ordinarily no rain, the sky being bright and cloudless till
October or November.
Rain is referred to symbolically in Deut. 32:2; Ps. 72:6; Isa.
44:3, 4; Hos. 10:12.
caused by the reflection and refraction of the rays of the sun
shining on falling rain. It was appointed as a witness of the
divine faithfulness (Gen. 9:12-17). It existed indeed before,
but it was then constituted as a sign of the covenant. Others,
however (as Delitzsch, Commentary on Pentateuch), think that it
"appeared then for the first time in the vault and clouds of
heaven." It is argued by those holding this opinion that the
atmosphere was differently constituted before the Flood. It is
referred to three other times in Scripture (Ezek. 1:27, 28; Rev.
dried grapes; mentioned 1 Sam. 25:18; 30:12; 2 Sam. 16:1; 1 Chr.
shore-town, a "fenced city" of the tribe of Naphtali (Josh.
19:35). The old name of Tiberias, according to the Rabbins.
a place upon the shore, a town belonging to Dan (Josh. 19:46).
It is now Tell er-Rakkeit, 6 miles north of Joppa, on the
sea-shore, near the mouth of the river 'Aujeh, i.e., "yellow
water." (See KANAH.)
(1.) The son of Hezron, and one of the ancestors of the
royal line (Ruth 4:19). The margin of 1 Chr. 2:9, also Matt.
1:3, 4 and Luke 3:33, have "Aram."
(2.) One of the sons of Jerahmeel (1 Chr. 2:25, 27).
(3.) A person mentioned in Job 32:2 as founder of a clan to
which Elihu belonged. The same as Aram of Gen. 22:21.
(Matt. 2:18), the Greek form of Ramah.
(1.) A city first
mentioned in Josh. 18:25, near Gibeah of Benjamin. It was
fortified by Baasha, king of Israel (1 Kings 15:17-22; 2 Chr.
16:1-6). Asa, king of Judah, employed Benhadad the Syrian king
to drive Baasha from this city (1 Kings 15:18, 20). Isaiah
(10:29) refers to it, and also Jeremiah, who was once a prisoner
there among the other captives of Jerusalem when it was taken by
Nebuchadnezzar (Jer. 39:8-12; 40:1). Rachel, whose tomb lies
close to Bethlehem, is represented as weeping in Ramah (Jer.
31:15) for her slaughtered children. This prophecy is
illustrated and fulfilled in the re-awakening of Rachel's grief
at the slaughter of the infants in Bethlehem (Matt. 2:18). It is
identified with the modern village of er-Ram, between Gibeon and
Beeroth, about 5 miles due north of Jerusalem. (See SAMUEL.)
(2.) A town identified with Rameh, on the border of Asher,
about 13 miles south-east of Tyre, "on a solitary hill in the
midst of a basin of green fields" (Josh. 19:29).
(3.) One of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:36), on
a mountain slope, about seven and a half miles west-south-west
of Safed, and 15 miles west of the north end of the Sea of
Galilee, the present large and well-built village of Rameh.
(4.) The same as Ramathaim-zophim (q.v.), a town of Mount
Ephraim (1 Sam. 1:1, 19).
(5.) The same as Ramoth-gilead (q.v.), 2 Kings 8:29; 2 Chr.
the two heights of the Zophites or of the watchers (only in 1
Sam. 1:1), "in the land of Zuph" (9:5). Ramathaim is another
name for Ramah (4).
One of the Levitical families descended from Kohath, that of
Zuph or Zophai (1 Chr. 6:26, 35), had a district assigned to
them in Ephraim, which from this circumstance was called "the
land of Zuph," and hence the name of the town, "Zophim." It was
the birth-place of Samuel and the seat of his authority (1 Sam.
2:11; 7:17). It is frequently mentioned in the history of that
prophet and of David (15:34; 16:13; 19:18-23). Here Samuel died
and was buried (25:1).
This town has been identified with the modern Neby Samwil
("the prophet Samuel"), about 4 or 5 miles north-west of
Jerusalem. But there is no certainty as to its precise locality.
Some have supposed that it may be identical with Arimathea of
the New Testament. (See MIZPAH).
the designation given to Shimei, the manager of David's vineyard
(1 Chr. 27:27).
elevation of Lehi, or the jawbone height; i.e., the Ramah of
Lehi (Judg. 15:15-17). The phrase "in the jaw," ver. 19,
Authorized Version, is in the margin, also in the Revised
Version, "in Lehi." Here Samson slew a thousand Philistines with
the height of Mizpeh or of the watch-tower (Josh. 13:26), a
place mentioned as one of the limits of Gad. There were two
Mizpehs on the east of the Jordan. This was the Mizpeh where
Jacob and Laban made a covenant, "Mizpeh of Gilead," called also
Galeed and Jegar-sahadutha. It has been identified with the
modern es-Salt, where the roads from Jericho and from Shechem to
Damascus unite, about 25 miles east of the Jordan and 13 south
of the Jabbok.
Ramath of the south
(Heb. Ramath-negeb). The Heb. negeb is the general designation
for south or south-west of Judah. This was one of the towns of
Simeon (Josh. 19:8). It is the same as "south Ramoth" (1 Sam.
30:27; R.V., "Ramoth of the south"). Its site is doubtful. Some
have thought it another name for Baalath-beer.
"the land of" (Gen. 47:11), was probably "the land of Goshen"
(q.v.) 45:10. After the Hebrews had built Rameses, one of the
"treasure cities," it came to be known as the "land" in which
that city was built.
The city bearing this name (Ex. 12:37) was probably identical
with Zoan, which Rameses II. ("son of the sun") rebuilt. It
became his special residence, and ranked next in importance and
magnificance to Thebes. Huge masses of bricks, made of Nile mud,
sun-dried, some of them mixed with stubble, possibly moulded by
Jewish hands, still mark the site of Rameses. This was the
general rendezvous of the Israelites before they began their
march out of Egypt. Called also Raamses (Ex. 1:11).
heights. A Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar (1 Sam.
30:27; 1 Chr. 6:73), the same as Jarmuth (Josh. 21:29) and
Remeth (q.v.), 19:21.
heights of Gilead, a city of refuge on the east of Jordan;
called "Ramoth in Gilead" (Deut. 4:43; Josh. 20:8; 21:38). Here
Ahab, who joined Jehoshaphat in an endeavour to rescue it from
the hands of the king of Syria, was mortally wounded (1 Kings
22:1-36). A similar attempt was afterwards made by Ahaziah and
Joram, when the latter was wounded (2 Kings 8:28). In this city
Jehu, the son of Jehoshaphat, was anointed by one of the sons of
the prophets (9:1, 4).
It has with probability been identified with Reimun, on the
northern slope of the Jabbok, about 5 miles west of Jerash or
Gerasa, one of the cities of Decapolis. Others identify it with
Gerosh, about 25 miles north-east of es-Salt, with which also
many have identified it. (See RAMATH-MIZPEH.)
(1.) Lev. 11:35. Probably a cooking furnace for two or more
pots, as the Hebrew word here is in the dual number; or perhaps
a fire-place fitted to receive a pair of ovens.
(2.) 2 Kings 11:8. A Hebrew word is here used different from
the preceding, meaning "ranks of soldiers." The Levites were
appointed to guard the king's person within the temple (2 Chr.
23:7), while the soldiers were his guard in the court, and in
going from the temple to the palace. The soldiers are here
commanded to slay any one who should break through the "ranks"
(as rendered in the R.V.) to come near the king. In 2 Kings
11:15 the expression, "Have her forth without the ranges," is in
the Revised Version, "Have her forth between the ranks;" i.e.,
Jehoiada orders that Athaliah should be kept surrounded by his
own guards, and at the same time conveyed beyond the precincts
of the temple.
the price or payment made for our redemption, as when it is said
that the Son of man "gave his life a ransom for many" (Matt.
20:28; comp. Acts 20:28; Rom. 3:23, 24; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal.
3:13; 4:4, 5: Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14; 1 Tim. 2:6; Titus 2:14; 1
Pet. 1:18, 19. In all these passages the same idea is
expressed). This word is derived from the Fr. rancon; Lat.
redemptio. The debt is represented not as cancelled but as fully
paid. The slave or captive is not liberated by a mere gratuitous
favour, but a ransom price has been paid, in consideration of
which he is set free. The original owner receives back his
alienated and lost possession because he has bought it back
"with a price." This price or ransom (Gr. lutron) is always said
to be Christ, his blood, his death. He secures our redemption by
the payment of a ransom. (See REDEMPTION.)
(1.) A Benjamite, the son of Binea (1 Chr. 8:2, 37), a
descendant of Saul. (2.) Margin of 1 Chr. 20:4, 6, where "giant"
is given in the text.
healed, a Benjamite, whose son Palti was one of the twelve spies
Heb. 'orebh, from a root meaning "to be black" (comp. Cant.
5:11); first mentioned as "sent forth" by Noah from the ark
(Gen. 8:7). "Every raven after his kind" was forbidden as food
(Lev. 11:15; Deut. 14:14). Ravens feed mostly on carrion, and
hence their food is procured with difficulty (Job 38:41; Ps.
147:9). When they attack kids or lambs or weak animals, it is
said that they first pick out the eyes of their victims (Prov.
30:17). When Elijah was concealed by the brook Cherith, God
commanded the ravens to bring him "bread and flesh in the
morning, and bread and flesh in the evening" (1 Kings 17:3-6).
There are eight species of ravens in Palestine, and they are
everywhere very numerous in that land.
The Nazarites were forbidden to make use of the razor (Num. 6:5;
Judg. 13:5). At their consecration the Levites were shaved all
over with a razor (Num. 8:7; comp. Ps. 52:2; Ezek. 5:1).
fourth, one of the Midianite chiefs slain by the Israelites in
the wilderness (Num. 31:8; Josh. 13:21).
a noose, the daughter of Bethuel, and the wife of Isaac (Gen.
22:23; 24:67). The circumstances under which Abraham's "steward"
found her at the "city of Nahor," in Padan-aram, are narrated in
Gen. 24-27. "She can hardly be regarded as an amiable woman.
When we first see her she is ready to leave her father's house
for ever at an hour's notice; and her future life showed not
only a full share of her brother Laban's duplicity, but the
grave fault of partiality in her relations to her children, and
a strong will, which soon controlled the gentler nature of her
husband." The time and circumstances of her death are not
recorded, but it is said that she was buried in the cave of
Machpelah (Gen. 49:31).
horseman, or chariot.
(1.) One of Ishbosheth's "captains of
bands" or leaders of predatory troops (2 Sam. 4:2).
(2.) The father of Jehonadab, who was the father of the
Rechabites (2 Kings 10:15, 23; Jer. 35:6-19).
the descendants of Rechab through Jonadab or Jehonadab. They
belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the children of Israel
into Palestine, and dwelt among them. Moses married a Kenite
wife (Judg. 1:16), and Jael was the wife of "Heber the Kenite"
(4:17). Saul also showed kindness to the Kenites (1 Sam. 15:6).
The main body of the Kenites dwelt in cities, and adopted
settled habits of life (30:29); but Jehonadab forbade his
descendants to drink wine or to live in cities. They were
commanded to lead always a nomad life. They adhered to the law
laid down by Jonadab, and were noted for their fidelity to the
old-established custom of their family in the days of Jeremiah
(35); and this feature of their character is referred to by the
prophet for the purpose of giving point to his own exhortation.
They are referred to in Neh. 3:14 and 1 Chr. 2:55. Dr. Wolff
(1839) found in Arabia, near Mecca, a tribe claiming to be
descendants of Jehonadab; and recently a Bedouin tribe has been
found near the Dead Sea who also profess to be descendants of
the same Kenite chief.
a change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a
change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity.
(1.) In Col. 1:21, 22, the word there used refers to a change
wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be
an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full
confidence and love. In 2 Cor. 5:20 the apostle beseeches the
Corinthians to be "reconciled to God", i.e., to lay aside their
(2.) Rom. 5:10 refers not to any change in our disposition
toward God, but to God himself, as the party reconciled. Romans
5:11 teaches the same truth. From God we have received "the
reconciliation" (R.V.), i.e., he has conferred on us the token
of his friendship. So also 2 Cor. 5:18, 19 speaks of a
reconciliation originating with God, and consisting in the
removal of his merited wrath. In Eph. 2:16 it is clear that the
apostle does not refer to the winning back of the sinner in love
and loyalty to God, but to the restoration of God's forfeited
favour. This is effected by his justice being satisfied, so that
he can, in consistency with his own nature, be favourable toward
sinners. Justice demands the punishment of sinners. The death of
Christ satisfies justice, and so reconciles God to us. This
reconciliation makes God our friend, and enables him to pardon
and save us. (See ATONEMENT.)
(Heb. mazkir, i.e., "the mentioner," "rememberancer"), the
office first held by Jehoshaphat in the court of David (2 Sam.
8:16), also in the court of Solomon (1 Kings 4:3). The next
recorder mentioned is Joah, in the reign of Hezekiah (2 Kings
18:18, 37; Isa. 36:3, 22). In the reign of Josiah another of the
name of Joah filled this office (2 Chr. 34:8). The "recorder"
was the chancellor or vizier of the kingdom. He brought all
weighty matters under the notice of the king, "such as
complaints, petitions, and wishes of subjects or foreigners. He
also drew up papers for the king's guidance, and prepared drafts
of the royal will for the scribes. All treaties came under his
oversight; and he had the care of the national archives or
records, to which, as royal historiographer, like the same state
officer in Assyria and Egypt, he added the current annals of the
Heb. goel; i.e., one charged with the duty of restoring the
rights of another and avenging his wrongs (Lev. 25:48, 49; Num.
5:8; Ruth 4:1; Job 19:25; Ps. 19:14; 78:35, etc.). This title is
peculiarly applied to Christ. He redeems us from all evil by the
payment of a ransom (q.v.). (See REDEMPTION.)
the purchase back of something that had been lost, by the
payment of a ransom. The Greek word so rendered is
apolutrosis, a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and
always with the idea of a ransom or price paid, i.e., redemption
by a lutron (see Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45). There are instances
in the LXX. Version of the Old Testament of the use of lutron
in man's relation to man (Lev. 19:20; 25:51; Ex. 21:30; Num.
35:31, 32; Isa. 45:13; Prov. 6:35), and in the same sense of
man's relation to God (Num. 3:49; 18:15).
There are many passages in the New Testament which represent
Christ's sufferings under the idea of a ransom or price, and the
result thereby secured is a purchase or redemption (comp. Acts
20:28; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Gal. 3:13; 4:4, 5; Eph. 1:7; Col. 1:14;
1 Tim. 2:5, 6; Titus 2:14; Heb. 9:12; 1 Pet. 1:18, 19; Rev.
5:9). The idea running through all these texts, however various
their reference, is that of payment made for our redemption. The
debt against us is not viewed as simply cancelled, but is fully
paid. Christ's blood or life, which he surrendered for them, is
the "ransom" by which the deliverance of his people from the
servitude of sin and from its penal consequences is secured. It
is the plain doctrine of Scripture that "Christ saves us neither
by the mere exercise of power, nor by his doctrine, nor by his
example, nor by the moral influence which he exerted, nor by any
subjective influence on his people, whether natural or mystical,
but as a satisfaction to divine justice, as an expiation for
sin, and as a ransom from the curse and authority of the law,
thus reconciling us to God by making it consistent with his
perfection to exercise mercy toward sinners" (Hodge's Systematic
The sea so called extends along the west coast of Arabia for
about 1,400 miles, and separates Asia from Africa. It is
connected with the Indian Ocean, of which it is an arm, by the
Strait of Bab-el-Mandeb. At a point (Ras Mohammed) about 200
miles from its nothern extremity it is divided into two arms,
that on the east called the AElanitic Gulf, now the Bahr
el-'Akabah, about 100 miles long by 15 broad, and that on the
west the Gulf of Suez, about 150 miles long by about 20 broad.
This branch is now connected with the Mediterranean by the Suez
Canal. Between these two arms lies the Sinaitic Peninsula.
The Hebrew name generally given to this sea is Yam Suph.
This word suph means a woolly kind of sea-weed, which the sea
casts up in great abundance on its shores. In these passages,
Ex. 10:19; 13:18; 15:4, 22; 23:31; Num. 14:25, etc., the Hebrew
name is always translated "Red Sea," which was the name given to
it by the Greeks. The origin of this name (Red Sea) is
uncertain. Some think it is derived from the red colour of the
mountains on the western shore; others from the red coral found
in the sea, or the red appearance sometimes given to the water
by certain zoophytes floating in it. In the New Testament (Acts
7:36; Heb. 11:29) this name is given to the Gulf of Suez.
This sea was also called by the Hebrews Yam-mitstraim, i.e.,
"the Egyptian sea" (Isa. 11:15), and simply Ha-yam, "the sea"
(Ex. 14:2, 9, 16, 21, 28; Josh. 24:6, 7; Isa. 10:26, etc.).
The great historical event connected with the Red Sea is the
passage of the children of Israel, and the overthrow of the
Egyptians, to which there is frequent reference in Scripture
(Ex. 14, 15; Num. 33:8; Deut. 11:4; Josh. 2:10; Judg. 11:16; 2
Sam. 22:16; Neh. 9:9-11; Ps. 66:6; Isa. 10:26; Acts 7:36, etc.).
Red Sea, Passage of
The account of the march of the Israelites through the Red Sea
is given in Ex. 14:22-31. There has been great diversity of
opinion as to the precise place where this occurred. The
difficulty of arriving at any definite conclusion on the matter
is much increased by the consideration that the head of the Gulf
of Suez, which was the branch of the sea that was crossed, must
have extended at the time of the Exodus probably 50 miles
farther north than it does at present. Some have argued that the
crossing took place opposite the Wady Tawarik, where the sea is
at present some 7 miles broad. But the opinion that seems to be
best supported is that which points to the neighbourhood of
Suez. This position perfectly satisfies all the conditions of
the stupendous miracle as recorded in the sacred narrative. (See EXODUS.)
(1.) "Paper reeds" (Isa. 19:7; R.V., "reeds"). Heb. 'aroth,
properly green herbage growing in marshy places.
(2.) Heb. kaneh (1 Kings 14:15; Job 40:21; Isa. 19:6), whence
the Gr. kanna, a "cane," a generic name for a reed of any kind.
The reed of Egypt and Palestine is the Arundo donax, which
grows to the height of 12 feet, its stalk jointed like the
bamboo, "with a magnificent panicle of blossom at the top, and
so slender and yielding that it will lie perfectly flat under a
gust of wind, and immediately resume its upright position." It
is used to illustrate weakness (2 Kings 18:21; Ezek. 29:6), also
fickleness or instability (Matt. 11:7; comp. Eph. 4:14).
A "bruised reed" (Isa. 42:3; Matt. 12:20) is an emblem of a
believer weak in grace. A reed was put into our Lord's hands in
derision (Matt. 27:29); and "they took the reed and smote him on
the head" (30). The "reed" on which they put the sponge filled
with vinegar (Matt. 27:48) was, according to John (19:29), a
hyssop stalk, which must have been of some length, or perhaps a
bunch of hyssop twigs fastened to a rod with the sponge. (See CANE.)
The process of refining metals is referred to by way of
illustrations in Isa. 1:25; Jer. 6:29; Zech. 13:9; Mal. 3:2, 3.
Refuge, Cities of
were six in number (Num. 35). 1. On the west of Jordan were (1)
Kadesh, in Naphtali; (2) Shechem, in Mount Ephraim; (3) Hebron,
in Judah. 2. On the east of Jordan were, (1) Golan, in Bashan;
(2) Ramoth-Gilead, in Gad; and (3) Bezer, in Reuben. (See under
each of these names.)
friend of the king, one of the two messengers sent by the exiled
Jews to Jerusalem in the time of Darius (Zech. 7:2) to make
inquiries at the temple.
only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally
means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia)
is used by classical writers with reference to the changes
produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is
equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Acts 3:21). In
Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as
a passing from death to life (1 John 3:14); becoming a new
creature in Christ Jesus (2 Cor. 5:17); being born again (John
3:5); a renewal of the mind (Rom. 12:2); a resurrection from the
dead (Eph. 2:6); a being quickened (2:1, 5).
This change is ascribed to the Holy Spirit. It originates not
with man but with God (John 1:12, 13; 1 John 2:29; 5:1, 4).
As to the nature of the change, it consists in the implanting
of a new principle or disposition in the soul; the impartation
of spiritual life to those who are by nature "dead in trespasses
The necessity of such a change is emphatically affirmed in
Scripture (John 3:3; Rom. 7:18; 8:7-9; 1 Cor. 2:14; Eph. 2:1;
enlargement of the Lord, the son of Eliezer, and grandson of
Moses (1 Chr. 23:17; 24:21).
street; broad place.
(1.) The father of Hadadezer, king of Tobah
(2 Sam. 8:3, 12).
(2.) Neh. 10:11.
(3.) The same, probably, as Beth-rehob (2 Sam. 10:6, 8; Judg.
18:28), a place in the north of Palestine (Num. 13:21). It is
now supposed to be represented by the castle of Hunin,
south-west of Dan, on the road from Hamath into Coele-Syria.
(4.) A town of Asher (Josh. 19:28), to the east of Zidon.
(5.) Another town of Asher (Josh. 19:30), kept possession of
by the Canaanites (Judg. 1:31).
he enlarges the people, the successor of Solomon on the throne,
and apparently his only son. He was the son of Naamah "the
Ammonitess," some well-known Ammonitish princess (1 Kings 14:21;
2 Chr. 12:13). He was forty-one years old when he ascended the
throne, and he reigned seventeen years (B.C. 975-958). Although
he was acknowledged at once as the rightful heir to the throne,
yet there was a strongly-felt desire to modify the character of
the government. The burden of taxation to which they had been
subjected during Solomon's reign was very oppressive, and
therefore the people assembled at Shechem and demanded from the
king an alleviation of their burdens. He went to meet them at
Shechem, and heard their demands for relief (1 Kings 12:4).
After three days, having consulted with a younger generation of
courtiers that had grown up around him, instead of following the
advice of elders, he answered the people haughtily (6-15). "The
king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the
Lord" (comp. 11:31). This brought matters speedily to a crisis.
The terrible cry was heard (comp. 2 Sam. 20:1):
"What portion have we in David?
Neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse:
To your tents, O Israel:
Now see to thine own house, David" (1 Kings 12:16).
And now at once the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam was
appalled, and tried concessions, but it was too late (18). The
tribe of Judah, Rehoboam's own tribe, alone remained faithful to
him. Benjamin was reckoned along with Judah, and these two
tribes formed the southern kingdom, with Jerusalem as its
capital; while the northern ten tribes formed themselves into a
separate kingdom, choosing Jeroboam as their king. Rehoboam
tried to win back the revolted ten tribes by making war against
them, but he was prevented by the prophet Shemaiah (21-24; 2
Chr. 11:1-4) from fulfilling his purpose. (See JEROBOAM.)
In the fifth year of Rehoboam's reign, Shishak (q.v.), one of
the kings of Egypt of the Assyrian dynasty, stirred up, no
doubt, by Jeroboam his son-in-law, made war against him.
Jerusalem submitted to the invader, who plundered the temple and
virtually reduced the kingdom to the position of a vassal of
Egypt (1 Kings 14:25, 26; 2 Chr. 12:5-9). A remarkable memorial
of this invasion has been discovered at Karnac, in Upper Egypt,
in certain sculptures on the walls of a small temple there.
These sculptures represent the king, Shishak, holding in his
hand a train of prisoners and other figures, with the names of
the captured towns of Judah, the towns which Rehoboam had
fortified (2 Chr. 11:5-12).
The kingdom of Judah, under Rehoboam, sank more and more in
moral and spiritual decay. "There was war between Rehoboam and
Jeroboam all their days." At length, in the fifty-eighth year of
his age, Rehoboam "slept with his fathers, and was buried with
his fathers in the city of David" (1 Kings 14:31). He was
succeeded by his son Abijah. (See EGYPT.)
(1.) A well in Gerar dug by Isaac (Gen. 26:22),
supposed to be in Wady er-Ruheibeh, about 20 miles south of
(2.) An ancient city on the Euphrates (Gen. 36:37; 1 Chr.
1:48), "Rehoboth by the river."
(3.) Named among the cities of Asshur (Gen. 10:11). Probably,
however, the words "rehoboth'ir" are to be translated as in the
Vulgate and the margin of A.V., "the streets of the city," or
rather "the public square of the city", i.e., of Nineveh.
(1.) One of "the children of the province" who
returned from the Captivity (Ezra 2:2); the same as "Nehum"
(2.) The "chancellor" of Artaxerxes, who sought to stir him up
against the Jews (Ezra 4:8-24) and prevent the rebuilding of the
walls and the temple of Jerusalem.
(3.) A Levite (Neh. 3:17).
(4.) Neh. 10:25.
(5.) A priest (Neh. 12:3).
friendly, one who maintained true allegiance to king David (1
Kings 1:8) when Adonijah rebelled.
the kidneys, the supposed seat of the desires and affections;
used metaphorically for "heart." The "reins" and the "heart" are
often mentioned together, as denoting the whole moral
constitution of man (Ps. 7:9; 16:7; 26:2; 139:13; Jer. 17:10,
(1.) One of the five Midianite kings
whom the Israelites destroyed (Num. 31:8).
(2.) One of the sons of Hebron (1 Chr. 2:43, 44).
(3.) A town of Benjamin (Josh. 18:27).