the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now
found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very
numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6;
12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (Cant. 4:8; Nah.
2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer.
49:19; 50:44; Zech. 11:3).
No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old
Testament for the lion.
(1.) Gor (i.e., a "suckling"), the
lion's whelp (Gen. 49:9; Jer. 51:38, etc.). (2.) Kephir (i.e.,
"shaggy"), the young lion (Judg. 14:5; Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13;
104:21), a term which is also used figuratively of cruel enemies
(Ps. 34:10; 35:17; 58:6; Jer. 2:15). (3.) 'Ari (i.e., the
"puller" in pieces), denoting the lion in general, without
reference to age or sex (Num. 23:24; 2 Sam. 17:10, etc.). (4.)
Shahal (the "roarer"), the mature lion (Job 4:10; Ps. 91:13;
Prov. 26:13; Hos. 5:14). (5.) Laish, so called from its
strength and bravery (Job 4:11; Prov. 30:30; Isa. 30:6). The
capital of Northern Dan received its name from this word. (6.)
Labi, from a root meaning "to roar," a grown lion or lioness
(Gen. 49:9; Num. 23:24; 24:9; Ezek. 19:2; Nah. 2:11).
The lion of Palestine was properly of the Asiatic variety,
distinguished from the African variety, which is larger. Yet it
not only attacked flocks in the presence of the shepherd, but
also laid waste towns and villages (2 Kings 17:25, 26) and
devoured men (1 Kings 13:24, 25). Shepherds sometimes,
single-handed, encountered lions and slew them (1 Sam. 17:34,
35; Amos 3:12). Samson seized a young lion with his hands and
"rent him as he would have rent a kid" (Judg. 14:5, 6). The
strength (Judg. 14:18), courage (2 Sam. 17:10), and ferocity
(Gen. 49:9) of the lion were proverbial.
besides its literal sense (Isa. 37:29, etc.), is used in the
original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a
cup (1 Kings 7:26), a garment (Ex. 28:32), a curtain (26:4), the
sea (Gen. 22:17), the Jordan (2 Kings 2:13). To "open the lips"
is to begin to speak (Job 11:5); to "refrain the lips" is to
keep silence (Ps. 40:9; 1 Pet. 3:10). The "fruit of the lips"
(Heb. 13:15) is praise, and the "calves of the lips"
thank-offerings (Hos. 14:2). To "shoot out the lip" is to
manifest scorn and defiance (Ps. 22:7). Many similar forms of
expression are found in Scripture.
(Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or
palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa. 66:20). In
Num. 7:3, the words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts
of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious
vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the
furniture of the temple.
(Heb. kabhed, "heavy;" hence the liver, as being the heaviest of
the viscera, Ex. 29:13, 22; Lev. 3:4, 1, 10, 15) was burnt upon
the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek. 21:21
there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon
"looked upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes
of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.)
is that of the teraphim of Laban. By the teraphim the LXX. and
Josephus understood "the liver of goats." By the "caul above the
liver," in Lev. 4:9; 7:4, etc., some understand the great lobe
of the liver itself.
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are
the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7);
they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 9); they warn of
danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3-5), and deliver the
commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, 7); they
associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and
forty-four thousand who sing the new song (Rev. 14:3), and with
the Church in the overthrow of her enemies (19:4).
They are supposed to represent mercy, as distinguished from
justice, mercy in its various instrumentalities, and especially
as connected with the throne of God, the "throne of grace."
Only in Lev. 11:30, as rendering of Hebrew letaah, so called
from its "hiding." Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot
lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See CHAMELEON.)
not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to
Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people
(Hos. 1:9, 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This
Hebrew word is rendered by "not my people" in ver. 10; 2:23.
The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow,
what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was
to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner
(Ex. 22:25; Deut. 23:19, 20; Lev. 25:35-38). At the end of seven
years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might,
however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew
commonwealth, when commerce increased, the practice of exacting
usury or interest on loans, and of suretiship in the commercial
sense, grew up. Yet the exaction of it from a Hebrew was
regarded as discreditable (Ps. 15:5; Prov. 6:1, 4; 11:15; 17:18;
20:16; 27:13; Jer. 15:10).
Limitations are prescribed by the law to the taking of a
pledge from the borrower. The outer garment in which a man slept
at night, if taken in pledge, was to be returned before sunset
(Ex. 22:26, 27; Deut. 24:12, 13). A widow's garment (Deut.
24:17) and a millstone (6) could not be taken. A creditor could
not enter the house to reclaim a pledge, but must remain outside
till the borrower brought it (10, 11). The Hebrew debtor could
not be retained in bondage longer than the seventh year, or at
farthest the year of jubilee (Ex. 21:2; Lev. 25:39, 42), but
foreign sojourners were to be "bondmen for ever" (Lev.
The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron
(Isa. 45:2; 1 Kings 4:3). These were the locks originally used,
and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an
opening in the outside (Judg. 3:24). (See KEY.)
Lock of hair (Judg. 16:13, 19; Ezek. 8:3; Num. 6:5, etc.).
There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust.
In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of
the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By the
Mosaic law they were reckoned "clean," so that he could lawfully
eat them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, 7, in allusion to
this Oriental devastating insect.
Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i.e.,
straight-winged. They are of many species. The ordinary Syrian
locust resembles the grasshopper, but is larger and more
destructive. "The legs and thighs of these insects are so
powerful that they can leap to a height of two hundred times the
length of their bodies. When so raised they spread their wings
and fly so close together as to appear like one compact moving
mass." Locusts are prepared as food in various ways. Sometimes
they are pounded, and then mixed with flour and water, and baked
into cakes; "sometimes boiled, roasted, or stewed in butter, and
then eaten." They were eaten in a preserved state by the ancient
The devastations they make in Eastern lands are often very
appalling. The invasions of locusts are the heaviest calamites
that can befall a country. "Their numbers exceed computation:
the hebrews called them 'the countless,' and the Arabs knew them
as 'the darkeners of the sun.' Unable to guide their own flight,
though capable of crossing large spaces, they are at the mercy
of the wind, which bears them as blind instruments of Providence
to the doomed region given over to them for the time.
Innumerable as the drops of water or the sands of the seashore,
their flight obscures the sun and casts a thick shadow on the
earth (Ex. 10:15; Judg. 6:5; 7:12; Jer. 46:23; Joel 2:10). It
seems indeed as if a great aerial mountain, many miles in
breadth, were advancing with a slow, unresting progress. Woe to
the countries beneath them if the wind fall and let them alight!
They descend unnumbered as flakes of snow and hide the ground.
It may be 'like the garden of Eden before them, but behind them
is a desolate wilderness. At their approach the people are in
anguish; all faces lose their colour' (Joel 2:6). No walls can
stop them; no ditches arrest them; fires kindled in their path
are forthwith extinguished by the myriads of their dead, and the
countless armies march on (Joel 2:8, 9). If a door or a window
be open, they enter and destroy everything of wood in the house.
Every terrace, court, and inner chamber is filled with them in a
moment. Such an awful visitation swept over Egypt (Ex. 10:1-19),
consuming before it every green thing, and stripping the trees,
till the land was bared of all signs of vegetation. A strong
north-west wind from the Mediterranean swept the locusts into
the Red Sea.", Geikie's Hours, etc., ii., 149.
no pasture, (2 Sam. 17:27), a town in Gilead not far from
Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok (9:4, 5). It is probably identical
with Debir (Josh. 13:26).
a shed for a watchman in a garden (Isa. 1:8). The Hebrew name
melunah is rendered "cottage" (q.v.) in Isa. 24:20. It also
denotes a hammock or hanging-bed.
the smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews (Lev.
14:10, 12, 15, 21, 24), called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is
the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the
contents of six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him,
or nearly a pint.
the maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul
for her faith (2 Tim. 1:5).
a knotted "eye" of cord, corresponding to the "taches" or knobs
in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them
into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Ex. 26:4, 5, 10,
There are various Hebrew and Greek words so rendered.
(1.) Heb. Jehovah, has been rendered in the English Bible
LORD, printed in small capitals. This is the proper name of the
God of the Hebrews. The form "Jehovah" is retained only in Ex.
6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4, both in the Authorized and the
(2.) Heb. 'adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It
denotes a master, as of slaves (Gen. 24:14, 27), or a ruler of
his subjects (45:8), or a husband, as lord of his wife (18:12).
The old plural form of this Hebrew word is 'adonai. From a
superstitious reverence for the name "Jehovah," the Jews, in
reading their Scriptures, whenever that name occurred, always
pronounced it 'Adonai.
(3.) Greek kurios, a supreme master, etc. In the LXX. this is
invariably used for "Jehovah" and "'Adonai."
(4.) Heb. ba'al, a master, as having domination. This word is
applied to human relations, as that of husband, to persons
skilled in some art or profession, and to heathen deities. "The
men of Shechem," literally "the baals of Shechem" (Judg. 9:2,
3). These were the Israelite inhabitants who had reduced the
Canaanites to a condition of vassalage (Josh. 16:10; 17:13).
(5.) Heb. seren, applied exclusively to the "lords of the
Philistines" (Judg. 3:3). The LXX. render it by satrapies. At
this period the Philistines were not, as at a later period (1
Sam. 21:10), under a kingly government. (See Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam.
6:18.) There were five such lordships, viz., Gath, Ashdod, Gaza,
Ashkelon, and Ekron.
only once, in Rev. 1:10, was in the early Christian ages used to
denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord's
resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus
used the name. (See SABBATH.)
the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his
disciples (Matt. 6:9-13). The closing doxology of the prayer is
omitted by Luke (11:2-4), also in the R.V. of Matt. 6:13. This
prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to
the offices of the Holy Spirit. "All Christian prayer is based
on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of
His prayer in Gethsemane and of the prayer recorded John 17. The
Lord's Prayer is the comprehensive type of the simplest and most
(1 Cor. 11:20), called also "the Lord's table" (10:21),
"communion," "cup of blessing" (10:16), and "breaking of bread"
In the early Church it was called also "eucharist," or giving
of thanks (comp. Matt. 26:27), and generally by the Latin Church
"mass," a name derived from the formula of dismission, Ite,
missa est, i.e., "Go, it is discharged."
The account of the institution of this ordinance is given in
Matt. 26:26-29, Mark 14:22-25, Luke 22:19, 20, and 1 Cor.
11:24-26. It is not mentioned by John.
It was designed,
(1.) To commemorate the death of Christ:
"This do in remembrance of me." (2.) To signify, seal, and apply
to believers all the benefits of the new covenant. In this
ordinance Christ ratifies his promises to his people, and they
on their part solemnly consecrate themselves to him and to his
entire service. (3.) To be a badge of the Christian profession.
(4.) To indicate and to promote the communion of believers with
Christ. (5.) To represent the mutual communion of believers with
The elements used to represent Christ's body and blood are
bread and wine. The kind of bread, whether leavened or
unleavened, is not specified. Christ used unleavened bread
simply because it was at that moment on the paschal table. Wine,
and no other liquid, is to be used (Matt. 26:26-29). Believers
"feed" on Christ's body and blood, (1) not with the mouth in any
manner, but (2) by the soul alone, and (3) by faith, which is
the mouth or hand of the soul. This they do (4) by the power of
the Holy Ghost. This "feeding" on Christ, however, takes place
not in the Lord's Supper alone, but whenever faith in him is
This is a permanent ordinance in the Church of Christ, and is
to be observed "till he come" again.
not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea's first daughter, a
type of Jehovah's temporary rejection of his people (Hos. 1:6;
(Heb. goral, a "pebble"), a small stone used in casting lots
(Num. 33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted to by the
Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God,
and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov. 16:33),
and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was
used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral
tribes (Num. 26:55; 34:13), at the detection of Achan (Josh.
7:14, 18), the election of Saul to be king (1 Sam. 10:20, 21),
the distribution of the priestly offices of the temple service
(1 Chr. 24:3, 5, 19; Luke 1:9), and over the two goats at the
feast of Atonement (Lev. 16:8). Matthias, who was "numbered with
the eleven" (Acts 1:24-26), was chosen by lot.
This word also denotes a portion or an inheritance (Josh.
15:1; Ps. 125:3; Isa. 17:4), and a destiny, as assigned by God
(Ps. 16:5; Dan. 12:13).
Lot, (Heb. lot), a covering; veil, the son of Haran, and
nephew of Abraham (Gen. 11:27). On the death of his father, he
was left in charge of his grandfather Terah (31), after whose
death he accompanied his uncle Abraham into Canaan (12:5),
thence into Egypt (10), and back again to Canaan (13:1). After
this he separated from him and settled in Sodom (13:5-13). There
his righteous soul was "vexed" from day to day (2 Pet. 2:7), and
he had great cause to regret this act. Not many years after the
separation he was taken captive by Chedorlaomer, and was rescued
by Abraham (Gen. 14). At length, when the judgment of God
descended on the guilty cities of the plain (Gen. 19:1-20), Lot
was miraculously delivered. When fleeing from the doomed city
his wife "looked back from behind him, and became a pillar of
salt." There is to this day a peculiar crag at the south end of
the Dead Sea, near Kumran, which the Arabs call Bint Sheik Lot,
i.e., Lot's wife. It is "a tall, isolated needle of rock, which
really does bear a curious resemblance to an Arab woman with a
child upon her shoulder." From the words of warning in Luke
17:32, "Remember Lot's wife," it would seem as if she had gone
back, or tarried so long behind in the desire to save some of
her goods, that she became involved in the destruction which
fell on the city, and became a stiffened corpse, fixed for a
time in the saline incrustations. She became "a pillar of salt",
i.e., as some think, of asphalt. (See SALT.)
Lot and his daughters sought refuge first in Zoar, and then,
fearing to remain there longer, retired to a cave in the
neighbouring mountains (Gen. 19:30). Lot has recently been
connected with the people called on the Egyptian monuments
Rotanu or Lotanu, who is supposed to have been the hero of the
Edomite tribe Lotan.
coverer, one of the sons of Seir, the Horite (Gen. 36:20, 29).
This word seems to require explanation only in the case of its
use by our Lord in his interview with "Simon, the son of Jonas,"
after his resurrection (John 21:16, 17). When our Lord says,
"Lovest thou me?" he uses the Greek word agapas; and when
Simon answers, he uses the Greek word philo, i.e., "I love."
This is the usage in the first and second questions put by our
Lord; but in the third our Lord uses Simon's word. The
distinction between these two Greek words is thus fitly
described by Trench:, "Agapan has more of judgment and
deliberate choice; philein has more of attachment and peculiar
personal affection. Thus the 'Lovest thou' (Gr. agapas) on the
lips of the Lord seems to Peter at this moment too cold a word,
as though his Lord were keeping him at a distance, or at least
not inviting him to draw near, as in the passionate yearning of
his heart he desired now to do. Therefore he puts by the word
and substitutes his own stronger 'I love' (Gr. philo) in its
room. A second time he does the same. And now he has conquered;
for when the Lord demands a third time whether he loves him, he
does it in the word which alone will satisfy Peter ('Lovest
thou,' Gr. phileis), which alone claims from him that personal
attachment and affection with which indeed he knows that his
heart is full."
In 1 Cor. 13 the apostle sets forth the excellency of love, as
the word "charity" there is rendered in the Revised Version.
the inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an
African nation under tribute to Egypt (2 Chr. 12:3; 16:8). Their
territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the
a friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome;
Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14).
brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isa.
14:12) to denote his glory.
of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and
Paul's kinsman (Rom. 16:21). His name is Latin, but his
birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of
Cyrene, in North Africa.
from the Lat. lucrum, "gain." 1 Tim. 3:3, "not given to filthy
lucre." Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the
expression has been omitted in the Revised Version.
(1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17), ancestor
of the Lydians probably.
(2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen.
10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10; 30:5), on the west of
Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19;
comp. Jer. 46:9).
probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Gen. 10:13; 1 Chr. 1:11).
They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations as
mercenaries of the king of Egypt.
made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim
(Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:5).
the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his
conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke
1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from
the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas,
and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He
accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his
imprisonment, nor did he accompany him further after his release
in his missionary journey at this time (Acts 17:1). On Paul's
third visit to Philippi (20:5, 6) we again meet with Luke, who
probably had spent all the intervening time in that city, a
period of seven or eight years. From this time Luke was Paul's
constant companion during his journey to Jerusalem (20:6-21:18).
He again disappears from view during Paul's imprisonment at
Jerusalem and Caesarea, and only reappears when Paul sets out
for Rome (27:1), whither he accompanies him (28:2, 12-16), and
where he remains with him till the close of his first
imprisonment (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). The last notice of the
"beloved physician" is in 2 Tim. 4:11.
There are many passages in Paul's epistles, as well as in the
writings of Luke, which show the extent and accuracy of his
Luke, Gospel according to
was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an
eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best
sources of information within his reach, and to have written an
orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1-4). The authors of the
first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each
other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance
of the Holy Spirit.
Each writer has some things, both in matter and style,
peculiar to himself, yet all the three have much in common.
Luke's Gospel has been called "the Gospel of the nations, full
of mercy and hope, assured to the world by the love of a
suffering Saviour;" "the Gospel of the saintly life;" "the
Gospel for the Greeks; the Gospel of the future; the Gospel of
progressive Christianity, of the universality and gratuitousness
of the gospel; the historic Gospel; the Gospel of Jesus as the
good Physician and the Saviour of mankind;" the "Gospel of the
Fatherhood of God and the brotherhood of man;" "the Gospel of
womanhood;" "the Gospel of the outcast, of the Samaritan, the
publican, the harlot, and the prodigal;" "the Gospel of
tolerance." The main characteristic of this Gospel, as Farrar
(Cambridge Bible, Luke, Introd.) remarks, is fitly expressed in
the motto, "Who went about doing good, and healing all that were
oppressed of the devil" (Acts 10:38; comp. Luke 4:18). Luke
wrote for the "Hellenic world." This Gospel is indeed "rich and
"Out of a total of 1151 verses, Luke has 389 in common with
Matthew and Mark, 176 in common with Matthew alone, 41 in common
with Mark alone, leaving 544 peculiar to himself. In many
instances all three use identical language." (See MATTHEW; MARK; GOSPELS.)
There are seventeen of our Lord's parables peculiar to this
Gospel. (See List of Parables in Appendix.) Luke also records
seven of our Lord's miracles which are omitted by Matthew and
Mark. (See List of Miracles in Appendix.) The synoptical Gospels
are related to each other after the following scheme. If the
contents of each Gospel be represented by 100, then when
compared this result is obtained:
Mark has 7 peculiarities, 93 coincidences.
Matthew 42 peculiarities, 58 coincidences.
Luke 59 peculiarities, 41 coincidences.
That is, thirteen-fourteenths of Mark, four-sevenths of Matthew,
and two-fifths of Luke are taken up in describing the same
things in very similar language.
Luke's style is more finished and classical than that of
Matthew and Mark. There is less in it of the Hebrew idiom. He
uses a few Latin words (Luke 12:6; 7:41; 8:30; 11:33; 19:20),
but no Syriac or Hebrew words except sikera, an exciting drink
of the nature of wine, but not made of grapes (from Heb. shakar,
"he is intoxicated", Lev. 10:9), probably palm wine.
This Gospel contains twenty-eight distinct references to the
The date of its composition is uncertain. It must have been
written before the Acts, the date of the composition of which is
generally fixed at about 63 or 64 A.D. This Gospel was written,
therefore, probably about 60 or 63, when Luke may have been at
Caesarea in attendance on Paul, who was then a prisoner. Others
have conjectured that it was written at Rome during Paul's
imprisonment there. But on this point no positive certainty can
It is commonly supposed that Luke wrote under the direction,
if not at the dictation of Paul. Many words and phrases are
common to both; e.g., compare:
Luke 4:22; with Col. 4:6.
Luke 4:32; with 1 Cor. 2:4.
Luke 6:36; with 2 Cor. 1:3.
Luke 6:39; with Rom. 2:19.
Luke 9:56; with 2 Cor. 10:8.
Luke 10:8; with 1 Cor. 10:27.
Luke 11:41; with Titus 1:15.
Luke 18:1; with 2 Thess. 1:11.
Luke 21:36; with Eph. 6:18.
Luke 22:19, 20; with 1 Cor. 11:23-29.
Luke 24:46; with Acts 17:3.
Luke 24:34; with 1 Cor. 15:5.
probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease
were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In
Matt. 4:24 "lunatics" are distinguished from demoniacs. In 17:15
the name "lunatic" is applied to one who is declared to have
been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.)
sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away
from God (Rom. 1:21). "Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in
the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all
moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity." In Mark
4:19 "lusts" are objects of desire.
a nut-bearing tree, the almond.
(1.) The ancient name of a royal
Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Gen. 28:19; 35:6), on
the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had
a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL.)
(2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg. 1:26)
by "a man who came forth out of the city of Luz." It is
identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Banias.
an inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and
the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief
towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The "speech of Lycaonia"
(Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or
perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with
Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it
(Acts 16:1-6; 18:23; 19:1).
a wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the
island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh.
It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts
21:1; 27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 2)
and Myra (27:5).
a town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New
Testament (Acts 9:32, 35, 38) as the scene of Peter's miracle in
healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of
Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old
Testament (1 Chr. 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the
Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of
Diospolis. Its modern name is Ludd. The so-called patron saint
of England, St. George, is said to have been born here.
(1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia
Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen.
10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and
on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea.
(2.) A woman of Thyatira, a "seller of purple," who dwelt in
Philippi (Acts 16:14, 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte.
The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips
of Paul (16:13). She thus became the first in Europe who
embraced Christianity. She was a person apparently of
considerable wealth, for she could afford to give a home to Paul
and his companions. (See THYATIRA.)
tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of
Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus.
the chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in
Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at
Caesarea (Acts 21:31-38; 22:24-30). His letter to his superior
officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military
correspondence (23:26-30). He obtained his Roman citizenship by
purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS.)
a town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among
a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had
been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2-7). Here also
he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and
superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he
was the "chief speaker," and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter,
probably in consequence of his stately, venerable appearance;
and were proceeding to offer sacrifices to them (13), when Paul
earnestly addressed them and turned their attention to the true
source of all blessings. But soon after, through the influence
of the Jews from Antioch in Pisidia and Iconium, they stoned
Paul and left him for dead (14:19). On recovering, Paul left for
Derbe; but soon returned again, through Lystra, encouraging the
disciples there to steadfastness. He in all likelihood visited
this city again on his third missionary tour (Acts 18:23).
Timothy, who was probably born here (2 Tim. 3:10, 11), was no
doubt one of those who were on this occasion witnesses of Paul's
persecution and his courage in Lystra.
oppression, a small Syrian kingdom near Geshur, east of the
Hauran, the district of Batanea (Josh. 13:13; 2 Sam. 10:6,8; 1
(2.) A daughter of Talmai, king of the old native population
of Geshur. She became one of David's wives, and was the mother
of Absalom (2 Sam. 3:3).
(3.) The father of Hanan, who was one of David's body-guard (1
(4.) The daughter of Abishalom (called Absalom, 2 Chr.
11:20-22), the third wife of Rehoboam, and mother of Abijam (1
Kings 15:2). She is called "Michaiah the daughter of Uriel," who
was the husband of Absalom's daughter Tamar (2 Chr. 13:2). Her
son Abijah or Abijam was heir to the throne.
(5.) The father of Achish, the king of Gath (1 Kings 2:39),
called also Maoch (1 Sam. 27:2).
ascent of the scorpions; i.e., "scorpion-hill", a pass on the
south-eastern border of Palestine (Num. 34:4; Josh. 15:3). It is
identified with the pass of Sufah, entering Palestine from the
great Wady el-Fikreh, south of the Dead Sea. (See AKRABBIM.)
desolation, a place in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:59),
probably the modern village Beit Ummar, 6 miles north of Hebron.
the work of Jehovah.
(1.) One of the Levites whom David
appointed as porter for the ark (1 Chr. 15:18, 20).
(2.) One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with
Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne (2 Chr. 23:1).
(3.) The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz,
killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of
Israel (2 Chr. 28:7).
(4.) One who was sent by king Josiah to repair the temple (2
Chr. 34:8). He was governor (Heb. sar, rendered elsewhere in the
Authorized Version "prince," "chief captain," chief ruler") of
(5.) The father of the priest Zephaniah (Jer. 21:1; 37:3).
(6.) The father of the false prophet Zedekiah (Jer. 29:21).
Maase'iah, refuge is Jehovah, a priest, the father of Neriah
(Jer. 32:12; 51:59).
work of Jehovah, one of the priests resident at Jerusalem at the
Captivity (1 Chr. 9:12).
small, a person named in our Lord's ancestry (Luke 3:26).
strength or consolation of Jehovah.
(1.) The head of the
twenty-fourth priestly course (1 Chr. 24:18) in David's reign.
(2.) A priest (Neh. 10:8).
This word does not occur in Scripture. It was the name given to
the leaders of the national party among the Jews who suffered in
the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded to the
Syrian throne B.C. 175. It is supposed to have been derived from
the Hebrew word (makkabah) meaning "hammer," as suggestive of
the heroism and power of this Jewish family, who are, however,
more properly called Asmoneans or Hasmonaeans, the origin of
which is much disputed.
After the expulsion of Antiochus Epiphanes from Egypt by the
Romans, he gave vent to his indignation on the Jews, great
numbers of whom he mercilessly put to death in Jerusalem. He
oppressed them in every way, and tried to abolish altogether the
Jewish worship. Mattathias, an aged priest, then residing at
Modin, a city to the west of Jerusalem, became now the
courageous leader of the national party; and having fled to the
mountains, rallied round him a large band of men prepared to
fight and die for their country and for their religion, which
was now violently suppressed. In 1 Macc. 2:60 is recorded his
dying counsels to his sons with reference to the war they were
now to carry on. His son Judas, "the Maccabee," succeeded him
(B.C. 166) as the leader in directing the war of independence,
which was carried on with great heroism on the part of the Jews,
and was terminated in the defeat of the Syrians.
Maccabees, Books of the
There were originally five books of the Maccabees. The first
contains a history of the war of independence, commencing (B.C.
175) in a series of patriotic struggles against the tyranny of
Antiochus Epiphanes, and terminating B.C. 135. It became part of
the Vulgate Version of the Bible, and was thus retained among
The second gives a history of the Maccabees' struggle from
B.C. 176 to B.C. 161. Its object is to encourage and admonish
the Jews to be faithful to the religion of their fathers.
The third does not hold a place in the Apocrypha, but is read
in the Greek Church. Its design is to comfort the Alexandrian
Jews in their persecution. Its writer was evidently an
The fourth was found in the Library of Lyons, but was
afterwards burned. The fifth contains a history of the Jews from
B.C. 184 to B.C. 86. It is a compilation made by a Jew after the
destruction of Jerusalem, from ancient memoirs, to which he had
access. It need scarcely be added that none of these books has
any divine authority.
in New Testament times, was a Roman province lying north of
Greece. It was governed by a propraetor with the title of
proconsul. Paul was summoned by the vision of the "man of
Macedonia" to preach the gospel there (Acts 16:9). Frequent
allusion is made to this event (18:5; 19:21; Rom. 15:26; 2 Cor.
1:16; 11:9; Phil. 4:15). The history of Paul's first journey
through Macedonia is given in detail in Acts 16:10-17:15. At the
close of this journey he returned from Corinth to Syria. He
again passed through this country (20:1-6), although the details
of the route are not given. After many years he probably visited
it for a third time (Phil. 2:24; 1 Tim. 1:3). The first convert
made by Paul in Europe was (Acts 16:13-15) Lydia (q.v.), a
"seller of purple," residing in Philippi, the chief city of the
eastern division of Macedonia.
the Black Fortress, was built by Herod the Great in the gorge of
Callirhoe, one of the wadies 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, as a
frontier rampart against Arab marauders. John the Baptist was
probably cast into the prison connected with this castle by
Herod Antipas, whom he had reproved for his adulterous marriage
with Herodias. Here Herod "made a supper" on his birthday. He
was at this time marching against Aretas, king of Perea, to
whose daughter he had been married. During the revelry of the
banquet held in the border fortress, to please Salome, who
danced before him, he sent an executioner, who beheaded John,
and "brought his head in a charger, and gave it to the damsel"
(Mark 6:14-29). This castle stood "starkly bold and clear" 3,860
feet above the Dead Sea, and 2,546 above the Mediterranean. Its
ruins, now called M'khaur, are still visible on the northern end
of Jebel Attarus.
clad with a mantle, or bond of the Lord, one of the Gadite
heroes who joined David in the wilderness (1 Chr. 12:13).
(1.) Manasseh's oldest son (Josh. 17:1), or probably his
only son (see 1 Chr. 7:14, 15; comp. Num. 26:29-33; Josh.
13:31). His descendants are referred to under the name of
Machirites, being the offspring of Gilead (Num. 26:29). They
settled in land taken from the Amorites (Num. 32:39, 40; Deut.
3:15) by a special enactment (Num. 36:1-3; Josh. 17:3, 4). He is
once mentioned as the representative of the tribe of Manasseh
east of Jordan (Judg. 5:14).
(2.) A descendant of the preceding, residing at Lo-debar,
where he maintained Jonathan's son Mephibosheth till he was
taken under the care of David (2 Sam. 9:4), and where he
afterwards gave shelter to David himself when he was a fugitive
portion; double cave, the cave which Abraham bought, together
with the field in which it stood, from Ephron the Hittite, for a
family burying-place (Gen. 23). It is one of those Bible
localities about the identification of which there can be no
doubt. It was on the slope of a hill on the east of Hebron,
"before Mamre." Here were laid the bodies of Abraham and Sarah,
Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah (Gen. 23:19; 25:9; 49:31;
50:13). Over the cave an ancient Christian church was erected,
probably in the time of Justinian, the Roman emperor. This
church has been converted into a Mohammedan mosque. The whole is
surrounded by the el-Haram i.e., "the sacred enclosure," about
200 feet long, 115 broad, and of an average height of about 50.
This building, from the immense size of some of its stones, and
the manner in which they are fitted together, is supposed by
some to have been erected in the days of David or of Solomon,
while others ascribe it to the time of Herod. It is looked upon
as the most ancient and finest relic of Jewish architecture.
On the floor of the mosque are erected six large cenotaphs as
monuments to the dead who are buried in the cave beneath.
Between the cenotaphs of Isaac and Rebekah there is a circular
opening in the floor into the cavern below, the cave of
Machpelah. Here it may be that the body of Jacob, which was
embalmed in Egypt, is still preserved (much older embalmed
bodies have recently been found in the cave of Deir el-Bahari in
Egypt, see PHARAOH), though those of the others there
buried may have long ago mouldered into dust. The interior of
the mosque was visited by the Prince of Wales in 1862 by a
special favour of the Mohammedan authorities. An interesting
account of this visit is given in Dean Stanley's Lectures on the
Jewish Church. It was also visited in 1866 by the Marquis of
Bute, and in 1869 by the late Emperor (Frederick) of Germany,
then the Crown Prince of Prussia. In 1881 it was visited by the
two sons of the Prince of Wales, accompanied by Sir C. Wilson
and others. (See Palestine Quarterly Statement, October 1882).
middle land, the third "son" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), the name by
which the Medes are known on the Assyrian monuments.
dunghill, the modern el-Minyay, 15 miles south-south-west of
Gaza (Josh. 15:31; 1 Chr. 2:49), in the south of Judah. The Pal.
Mem., however, suggest Umm Deimneh, 12 miles north-east of
Beersheba, as the site.
ibid., a Moabite town threatened with the sword of the
Babylonians (Jer. 48:2).
ibid., a town in Benjamin, not far from Jerusalem, towards the
north (Isa. 10:31). The same Hebrew word occurs in Isa. 25:10,
where it is rendered "dunghill." This verse has, however, been
interpreted as meaning "that Moab will be trodden down by
Jehovah as teben [broken straw] is trodden to fragments on the
threshing-floors of Madmenah."
This word is used in its proper sense in Deut. 28:34, John
10:20, 1 Cor. 14:23. It also denotes a reckless state of mind
arising from various causes, as over-study (Eccl. 1:17; 2:12),
blind rage (Luke 6:11), or a depraved temper (Eccl. 7:25; 9:3; 2
Pet. 2:16). David feigned madness (1 Sam. 21:13) at Gath because
he "was sore afraid of Achish."
strife, a Canaanitish city in the north of Palestine (Josh.
11:1; 12:19), whose king was slain by Joshua; perhaps the ruin
Madin, near Hattin, some 5 miles west of Tiberias.
a tower, a town in Galilee, mentioned only in Matt. 15:39. In
the parallel passage in Mark 8:10 this place is called
Dalmanutha. It was the birthplace of Mary called the Magdalen,
or Mary Magdalene. It was on the west shore of the Lake of
Tiberias, and is now probably the small obscure village called
el-Mejdel, about 3 miles north-west of Tiberias. In the Talmud
this city is called "the city of colour," and a particular
district of it was called "the tower of dyers." The indigo plant
was much cultivated here.
a surname derived from Magdala, the place of her nativity, given
to one of the Marys of the Gospels to distinguish her from the
other Marys (Matt. 27:56, 61; 28:1, etc.). A mistaken notion has
prevailed that this Mary was a woman of bad character, that she
was the woman who is emphatically called "a sinner" (Luke
7:36-50). (See MARY.)
The Jews seem early to have consulted the teraphim (q.v.) for
oracular answers (Judg. 18:5, 6; Zech. 10:2). There is a
remarkable illustration of this divining by teraphim in Ezek.
21:19-22. We read also of the divining cup of Joseph (Gen.
44:5). The magicians of Egypt are frequently referred to in the
history of the Exodus. Magic was an inherent part of the ancient
Egyptian religion, and entered largely into their daily life.
All magical arts were distinctly prohibited under penalty of
death in the Mosaic law. The Jews were commanded not to learn
the "abomination" of the people of the Promised Land (Lev.
19:31; Deut. 18:9-14). The history of Saul's consulting the
witch of Endor (1 Sam. 28:3-20) gives no warrant for attributing
supernatural power to magicians. From the first the witch is
here only a bystander. The practice of magic lingered among the
people till after the Captivity, when they gradually abandoned
It is not much referred to in the New Testament. The Magi
mentioned in Matt. 2:1-12 were not magicians in the ordinary
sense of the word. They belonged to a religious caste, the
followers of Zoroaster, the astrologers of the East. Simon, a
magician, was found by Philip at Samaria (Acts 8:9-24); and Paul
and Barnabas encountered Elymas, a Jewish sorcerer, at Paphos
(13:6-12). At Ephesus there was a great destruction of magical
books (Acts 19:18, 19).
Heb. hartumim, (dan. 1:20) were sacred scribes who acted as
interpreters of omens, or "revealers of secret things."
a public civil officer invested with authority. The Hebrew
shophetim, or judges, were magistrates having authority in the
land (Deut. 1:16, 17). In Judg. 18:7 the word "magistrate"
(A.V.) is rendered in the Revised Version "possessing
authority", i.e., having power to do them harm by invasion. In
the time of Ezra (9:2) and Nehemiah (2:16; 4:14; 13:11) the
Jewish magistrates were called seganim, properly meaning
"nobles." In the New Testament the Greek word archon, rendered
"magistrate" (Luke 12:58; Titus 3:1), means one first in power,
and hence a prince, as in Matt. 20:25, 1 Cor. 2:6, 8. This term
is used of the Messiah, "Prince of the kings of the earth" (Rev.
1:5). In Acts 16:20, 22, 35, 36, 38, the Greek term strategos,
rendered "magistrate," properly signifies the leader of an army,
a general, one having military authority. The strategoi were
the duumviri, the two praetors appointed to preside over the
administration of justice in the colonies of the Romans. They
were attended by the sergeants (properly lictors or "rod
region of Gog, the second of the "sons" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2; 1
Chr. 1:5). In Ezekiel (38:2; 39:6) it is the name of a nation,
probably some Scythian or Tartar tribe descended from Japheth.
They are described as skilled horsemen, and expert in the use of
the bow. The Latin father Jerome says that this word denotes
"Scythian nations, fierce and innumerable, who live beyond the
Caucasus and the Lake Maeotis, and near the Caspian Sea, and
spread out even onward to India." Perhaps the name "represents
the Assyrian Mat Gugi, or 'country of Gugu,' the Gyges of the
Greeks" (Sayce's Races, etc.).
fear on every side, (Jer. 20:3), a symbolical name given to the
priest Pashur, expressive of the fate announced by the prophet
as about to come upon him. Pashur was to be carried to Babylon,
and there die.
praise of God.
(1.) The son of Cainan, of the line of Seth (Gen.
5:12-17); called Maleleel (Luke 3:37).
(2.) Neh. 11:4, a descendant of Perez.
a lute; lyre.
(1.) The daughter of Ishmael, and third wife of
Esau (Gen. 28:9); called also Bashemath (Gen. 36:3).
(2.) The daughter of Jerimoth, who was one of David's sons.
She was one of Rehoboam's wives (2 Chr. 11:18).
Mahalath Leannoth Maschil
This word leannoth seems to point to some kind of instrument
unknown (Ps. 88, title). The whole phrase has by others been
rendered, "On the sickness of affliction: a lesson;" or,
"Concerning afflictive sickness: a didactic psalm."
in the title of Ps. 53, denoting that this was a didactic psalm,
to be sung to the accompaniment of the lute or guitar. Others
regard this word "mahalath" as the name simply of an old air to
which the psalm was to be sung. Others, again, take the word as
meaning "sickness," and regard it as alluding to the contents of
two camps, a place near the Jabbok, beyond Jordan, where Jacob
was met by the "angels of God," and where he divided his retinue
into "two hosts" on his return from Padan-aram (Gen. 32:2). This
name was afterwards given to the town which was built at that
place. It was the southern boundary of Bashan (Josh. 13:26, 30),
and became a city of the Levites (21:38). Here Saul's son
Ishbosheth reigned (2 Sam. 2:8, 12), while David reigned at
Hebron. Here also, after a troubled reign, Ishbosheth was
murdered by two of his own bodyguard (2 Sam. 4:5-7), who brought
his head to David at Hebron, but were, instead of being
rewarded, put to death by him for their cold-blooded murder.
Many years after this, when he fled from Jerusalem on the
rebellion of his son Absalom, David made Mahanaim, where
Barzillai entertained him, his headquarters, and here he
mustered his forces which were led against the army that had
gathered around Absalom. It was while sitting at the gate of
this town that tidings of the great and decisive battle between
the two hosts and of the death of his son Absalom reached him,
when he gave way to the most violent grief (2 Sam. 17:24-27).
The only other reference to Mahanaim is as a station of one of
Solomon's purveyors (1 Kings 4:14). It has been identified with
the modern Mukhumah, a ruin found in a depressed plain called
el-Bukie'a, "the little vale," near Penuel, south of the Jabbok,
and north-east of es-Salt.
Judg. 18:12 = "camp of Dan" 13:25 (R.V., "Mahaneh-dan"), a place
behind (i.e., west of) Kirjath-jearim, where the six hundred
Danites from Zorah and Eshtaol encamped on their way to capture
the city of Laish, which they rebuilt and called "Dan, after the
name of their father" (18:11-31). The Palestine Explorers point
to a ruin called 'Erma, situated about 3 miles from the great
corn valley on the east of Samson's home.
(1.) A Kohathite Levite, father of Elkanah (1 Chr.
(2.) Another Kohathite Levite, of the time of Hezekiah (2 Chr.
visions, a Kohathite Levite, chief of the twenty-third course of
musicians (1 Chr. 25:4, 30).
plunder speedeth; spoil hasteth, (Isa. 8:1-3; comp. Zeph. 1:14),
a name Isaiah was commanded first to write in large characters
on a tablet, and afterwards to give as a symbolical name to a
son that was to be born to him (Isa. 8:1, 3), as denoting the
sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by the Assyrian army.
disease, one of the five daughters of Zelophehad (Num. 27:1-11)
who had their father's inheritance, the law of inheritance
having been altered in their favour.
sickly, the elder of Elimelech the Bethlehemite's two sons by
Naomi. He married Ruth and died childless (Ruth 1:2, 5; 4:9,
10), in the land of Moab.
dance, the father of four sons (1 Kings 4:31) who were inferior
in wisdom only to Solomon.
Mail, Coat of
"a corselet of scales," a cuirass formed of pieces of metal
overlapping each other, like fish-scales (1 Sam. 17:5); also
(38) a corselet or garment thus encased.
(Gr. artemon), answering to the modern "mizzen-sail," as some
suppose. Others understand the "jib," near the prow, or the
"fore-sail," as likely to be most useful in bringing a ship's
head to the wind in the circumstances described (Acts 27:40).
assemblies, a station of the Israelites in the desert (Num.
herdsman's place, one of the royal cities of the Canaanites
(Josh. 12:16), near which was a cave where the five kings who
had confederated against Israel sought refuge (10:10-29). They
were put to death by Joshua, who afterwards suspended their
bodies upon five trees. It has been identified with the modern
village called Sumeil, standing on a low hill about 7 miles to
the north-west of Eleutheropolis (Beit Jibrin), where are
ancient remains and a great cave. The Palestine Exploration
surveyors have, however, identified it with el-Mughar, or "the
caves," 3 miles from Jabneh and 2 1/2 southwest of Ekron,
because, they say, "at this site only of all possible sites for
Makkedah in the Palestine plain do caves still exist." (See
mortar, a place in or near Jerusalem inhabited by silver
merchants (Zeph. 1:11). It has been conjectured that it was the
"Phoenician quarter" of the city, where the traders of that
nation resided, after the Oriental custom.
messenger or angel, the last of the minor prophets, and the
writer of the last book of the Old Testament canon (Mal. 4:4, 5,
6). Nothing is known of him beyond what is contained in his book
of prophecies. Some have supposed that the name is simply a
title descriptive of his character as a messenger of Jehovah,
and not a proper name. There is reason, however, to conclude
that Malachi was the ordinary name of the prophet.
He was contemporary with Nehemiah (comp. Mal. 2:8 with Neh.
13:15; Mal. 2:10-16 with Neh. 13:23). No allusion is made to him
by Ezra, and he does not mention the restoration of the temple,
and hence it is inferred that he prophesied after Haggai and
Zechariah, and when the temple services were still in existence
(Mal. 1:10; 3:1, 10). It is probable that he delivered his
prophecies about B.C. 420, after the second return of Nehemiah
from Persia (Neh. 13:6), or possibly before his return.
Malachi, Prophecies of
The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters. In the
Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the A.V.) form but
one. The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an
introduction (Mal. 1:1-5), in which the prophet reminds Israel
of Jehovah's love to them. The first section (1:6-2:9) contains
a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the
name of Jehovah, and been leaders in a departure from his
worship and from the covenant, and for their partiality in
administering the law. In the second (2:9-16) the people are
rebuked for their intermarriages with idolatrous heathen. In the
third (2:17-4:6) he addresses the people as a whole, and warns
them of the coming of the God of judgment, preceded by the
advent of the Messiah.
This book is frequently referred to in the New Testament
(Matt. 11:10; 17:12; Mark 1:2; 9:11, 12; Luke 1:17; Rom. 9:13).
(2 Sam. 12:30, Heb., R.V., "their king;" Jer. 49:1, 3, R.V.;
Zeph. 1:5), the national idol of the Ammonites. When Rabbah was
taken by David, the crown of this idol was among the spoils. The
weight is said to have been "a talent of gold" (above 100 lbs.).
The expression probably denotes its value rather than its
weight. It was adorned with precious stones.
(1.) The head of the fifth division of the
priests in the time of David (1 Chr. 24:9).
(2.) A priest, the father of Pashur (1 Chr. 9:12; Jer. 38:1).
(3.) One of the priests appointed as musicians to celebrate
the completion of the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 12:42).
(4.) A priest who stood by Ezra when he "read in the book of
the law of God" (Neh. 8:4).
(5.) Neh. 3:11.
(6.) Neh. 3:31.
(7.) Neh. 3:14.
king of help, one of the four sons of Saul (1 Chr. 8:33). He
perished along with his father in the battle of Gilboa (1 Sam.
reigning, the personal servant or slave of the high priest
Caiaphas. He is mentioned only by John. Peter cut off his right
ear in the garden of Gethsemane (John 18:10). But our Lord cured
it with a touch (Matt. 26:51; Mark 14:47; Luke 22:51). This was
the last miracle of bodily cure wrought by our Lord. It is not
mentioned by John.
my fulness, a Kohathite Levite, one of the sons of Heman the
Levite (1 Chr. 25:4), and chief of the nineteenth division of
the temple musicians (26).
occurs only in Job 30:4 (R.V., "saltwort"). The word so rendered
(malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably denotes the Atriplex
halimus of Linnaeus, a species of sea purslane found on the
shores of the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in
salt marshes. It is a tall shrubby orach, growing to the height
sometimes of 10 feet. Its buds and leaves, with those of other
saline plants, are eaten by the poor in Palestine.
reigned over, or reigning.
(1.) A Levite of the family of Merari
(1 Chr. 6:44).
(2.) A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:2).
(3.) Ezra 10:29. (4.) Ezra 10:32
a Chaldee or Syriac word meaning "wealth" or "riches" (Luke
16:9-11); also, by personification, the god of riches (Matt.
6:24; Luke 16:9-11).
(1.) An Amoritish chief in alliance with Abraham
(Gen. 14:13, 24).
(2.) The name of the place in the neighbourhood of Hebron
(q.v.) where Abraham dwelt (Gen. 23:17, 19; 35:27); called also
in Authorized Version (13:18) the "plain of Mamre," but in
Revised Version more correctly "the oaks [marg., 'terebinths']
of Mamre." The name probably denotes the "oak grove" or the
"wood of Mamre," thus designated after Abraham's ally.
This "grove" must have been within sight of or "facing"
Machpelah (q.v.). The site of Mamre has been identified with
Ballatet Selta, i.e., "the oak of rest", where there is a tree
called "Abraham's oak," about a mile and a half west of Hebron.
Others identify it with er-Rameh, 2 miles north of Hebron.
(1.) Heb. 'Adam, used as the proper name of the first man. The
name is derived from a word meaning "to be red," and thus the
first man was called Adam because he was formed from the red
earth. It is also the generic name of the human race (Gen. 1:26,
27; 5:2; 8:21; Deut. 8:3). Its equivalents are the Latin homo
and the Greek anthropos (Matt. 5:13, 16). It denotes also man in
opposition to woman (Gen. 3:12; Matt. 19:10).
(2.) Heb. 'ish, like the Latin vir and Greek aner, denotes
properly a man in opposition to a woman (1 Sam. 17:33; Matt.
14:21); a husband (Gen. 3:16; Hos. 2:16); man with reference to
excellent mental qualities.
(3.) Heb. 'enosh, man as mortal, transient, perishable (2 Chr.
14:11; Isa. 8:1; Job 15:14; Ps. 8:4; 9:19, 20; 103:15). It is
applied to women (Josh. 8:25).
(4.) Heb. geber, man with reference to his strength, as
distinguished from women (Deut. 22:5) and from children (Ex.
12:37); a husband (Prov. 6:34).
(5.) Heb. methim, men as mortal (Isa. 41:14), and as opposed
to women and children (Deut. 3:6; Job 11:3; Isa. 3:25).
Man was created by the immediate hand of God, and is
generically different from all other creatures (Gen. 1:26, 27;
2:7). His complex nature is composed of two elements, two
distinct substances, viz., body and soul (Gen. 2:7; Eccl. 12:7;
2 Cor. 5:1-8).
The words translated "spirit" and "soul," in 1 Thess. 5:23,
Heb. 4:12, are habitually used interchangeably (Matt. 10:28;
16:26; 1 Pet. 1:22). The "spirit" (Gr. pneuma) is the soul as
rational; the "soul" (Gr. psuche) is the same, considered as the
animating and vital principle of the body.
Man was created in the likeness of God as to the perfection of
his nature, in knowledge (Col. 3:10), righteousness, and
holiness (Eph. 4:24), and as having dominion over all the
inferior creatures (Gen. 1:28). He had in his original state
God's law written on his heart, and had power to obey it, and
yet was capable of disobeying, being left to the freedom of his
own will. He was created with holy dispositions, prompting him
to holy actions; but he was fallible, and did fall from his
integrity (3:1-6). (See FALL.)
consoler, a Christian teacher at Antioch. Nothing else is known
of him beyond what is stated in Acts 13:1, where he is spoken of
as having been brought up with (Gr. syntrophos; rendered in R.V.
"foster brother" of) Herod, i.e., Herod Antipas, the tetrach,
who, with his brother Archelaus, was educated at Rome.