majesty of Jehovah.
(1.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in
expounding the law (Neh. 8:7; 9:5). (2.) Neh. 10:18, a Levite
who sealed the covenant.
partridge, one of the daughters of Zelophehad the Gileadite, to
whom portions were assigned by Moses (Num. 26:33; 27:1; 36:11).
Jehovah impels, the king of Hebron who joined the league against
Gibeon. He and his allies were defeated (Josh. 10:3, 5, 16-27).
a fortress, the name given to David's lurking-places (1 Sam.
22:4, 5; 24:22).
in the highest sense belongs to God (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 15:4), and
to Christians as consecrated to God's service, and in so far as
they are conformed in all things to the will of God (Rom. 6:19,
22; Eph. 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1 Pet. 1:15). Personal holiness is a
work of gradual development. It is carried on under many
hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness,
prayer, and perseverance (1 Cor. 1:30; 2 Cor. 7:1; Eph. 4:23,
24). (See SANCTIFICATION.)
the third Person of the adorable Trinity.
His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the
attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are
ascribed to him (John 14:17, 26; 15:26; 1 Cor. 2:10, 11; 12:11).
He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John 16:7-13; Rom.
8:26). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person.
The very nature of these offices involves personal distinction
(Luke 12:12; Acts 5:32; 15:28; 16:6; 28:25; 1 Cor. 2:13; Heb.
2:4; 3:7; 2 Pet. 1:21).
His divinity is established (1) from the fact that the names
of God are ascribed to him (Ex. 17:7; Ps. 95:7; comp. Heb.
3:7-11); and (2) that divine attributes are also ascribed to
him, omnipresence (Ps. 139:7; Eph. 2:17, 18; 1 Cor. 12:13);
omniscience (1 Cor. 2:10, 11); omnipotence (Luke 1:35; Rom.
8:11); eternity (Heb. 9:4). (3) Creation is ascribed to him
(Gen. 1:2; Job 26:13; Ps. 104:30), and the working of miracles
(Matt. 12:28; 1 Cor. 12:9-11). (4) Worship is required and
ascribed to him (Isa. 6:3; Acts 28:25; Rom. 9:1; Rev. 1:4; Matt.
Holy of holies
the second or interior portion of the tabernacle. It was left in
total darkness. No one was permitted to enter it except the high
priest, and that only once a year. It contained the ark of the
covenant only (Ex. 25:10-16). It was in the form of a perfect
cube of 20 cubits. (See TABERNACLE.)
one of the two portions into which the tabernacle was divided
(Ex. 26:31; 37:17-25; Heb. 9:2). It was 20 cubits long and 10 in
height and breadth. It was illuminated by the golden
candlestick, as it had no opening to admit the light. It
contained the table of showbread (Ex. 25:23-29) and the golden
altar of incense (30:1-11). It was divided from the holy of
holies by a veil of the most costly materials and the brightest
The arrangement of the temple (q.v.) was the same in this
respect. In it the walls of hewn stone were wainscotted with
cedar and overlaid with gold, and adorned with beautiful
carvings. It was entered from the porch by folding doors
overlaid with gold and richly embossed. Outside the holy place
stood the great tank or "sea" of molten brass, supported by
twelve oxen, three turned each way, capable of containing two
thousand baths of water. Besides this there were ten lavers and
the brazen altar of burnt sacrifice.
heap, the largest of dry measures, containing about 8 bushels or
1 quarter English = 10 ephahs (Lev. 27:16; Num. 11:32) = a COR.
"Half a homer," a grain measure mentioned only in Hos. 3:2.
(1.) Heb. ya'ar, occurs only 1 Sam. 14:25, 27, 29; Cant. 5:1,
where it denotes the honey of bees. Properly the word signifies
a forest or copse, and refers to honey found in woods.
(2.) Nopheth, honey that drops (Ps. 19:10; Prov. 5:3; Cant.
(3.) Debash denotes bee-honey (Judg. 14:8); but also
frequently a vegetable honey distilled from trees (Gen. 43:11;
Ezek. 27:17). In these passages it may probably mean "dibs," or
syrup of grapes, i.e., the juice of ripe grapes boiled down to
one-third of its bulk.
(4.) Tsuph, the cells of the honey-comb full of honey (Prov.
16:24; Ps. 19:10).
(5.) "Wild honey" (Matt. 3:4) may have been the vegetable
honey distilled from trees, but rather was honey stored by bees
in rocks or in trees (Deut. 32:13; Ps. 81:16; 1 Sam. 14:25-29).
Canaan was a "land flowing with milk and honey" (Ex. 3:8).
Milk and honey were among the chief dainties in the earlier
ages, as they are now among the Bedawin; and butter and honey
are also mentioned among articles of food (Isa. 7:15). The
ancients used honey instead of sugar (Ps. 119:103; Prov. 24:13);
but when taken in great quantities it caused nausea, a fact
referred to in Prov. 25:16, 17 to inculcate moderation in
pleasures. Honey and milk also are put for sweet discourse
(Heb. tsaniph) a tiara round the head (Isa. 3:23; R.V., pl.,
"turbans"). Rendered "diadem," Job 29:14; high priest's "mitre,"
Zech. 3:5; "royal diadem," Isa. 62:3.
a cleft hoof as of neat cattle (Ex. 10:26; Ezek. 32:13); hence
also of the horse, though not cloven (Isa. 5:28). The "parting
of the hoof" is one of the distinctions between clean and
unclean animals (Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:7).
(1.) Heb. hah, a "ring" inserted in the nostrils of animals to
which a cord was fastened for the purpose of restraining them (2
Kings 19:28; Isa. 37:28, 29; Ezek. 29:4; 38:4). "The Orientals
make use of this contrivance for curbing their
work-beasts...When a beast becomes unruly they have only to draw
the cord on one side, which, by stopping his breath, punishes
him so effectually that after a few repetitions he fails not to
become quite tractable whenever he begins to feel it"
(Michaelis). So God's agents are never beyond his control.
(2.) Hakkah, a fish "hook" (Job 41:2, Heb. Text, 40:25; Isa.
19:8; Hab. 1:15).
(3.) Vav, a "peg" on which the curtains of the tabernacle were
hung (Ex. 26:32).
(4.) Tsinnah, a fish-hooks (Amos 4:2).
(5.) Mazleg, flesh-hooks (1 Sam. 2:13, 14), a kind of fork
with three teeth for turning the sacrifices on the fire, etc.
(6.) Mazmeroth, pruning-hooks (Isa. 2:4; Joel 3:10).
(7.) 'Agmon (Job 41:2, Heb. Text 40:26), incorrectly rendered
in the Authorized Version. Properly a rush-rope for binding
animals, as in Revised Version margin.
one of the three main elements of Christian character (1 Cor.
13:13). It is joined to faith and love, and is opposed to seeing
or possessing (Rom. 8:24; 1 John 3:2). "Hope is an essential and
fundamental element of Christian life, so essential indeed,
that, like faith and love, it can itself designate the essence
of Christianity (1 Pet. 3:15; Heb. 10:23). In it the whole glory
of the Christian vocation is centred (Eph. 1:18; 4:4)."
Unbelievers are without this hope (Eph. 2:12; 1 Thess. 4:13).
Christ is the actual object of the believer's hope, because it
is in his second coming that the hope of glory will be fulfilled
(1 Tim. 1:1; Col. 1:27; Titus 2:13). It is spoken of as
"lively", i.e., a living, hope, a hope not frail and perishable,
but having a perennial life (1 Pet. 1:3). In Rom. 5:2 the "hope"
spoken of is probably objective, i.e., "the hope set before us,"
namely, eternal life (comp. 12:12). In 1 John 3:3 the expression
"hope in him" ought rather to be, as in the Revised Version,
"hope on him," i.e., a hope based on God.
pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest
(1 Sam. 1:3; 2:34), who, because he was "very old," resigned to
them the active duties of his office. By their scandalous
conduct they brought down a curse on their father's house (2:22,
12-27, 27-36; 3:11-14). For their wickedness they were called
"sons of Belial," i.e., worthless men (2:12). They both perished
in the disastrous battle with the Philistines at Aphek (4:11).
i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian
Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time of Zedekiah,
king of Judah (Jer. 37:5 44:30; Ezek. 29:6, 7).
(1.) One of the mountains of the chain of Seir or
Edom, on the confines of Idumea (Num. 20:22-29; 33:37). It was
one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (33:37),
which they reached in the circuitous route they were obliged to
take because the Edomites refused them a passage through their
territory. It was during the encampment here that Aaron died
(Num. 33:37-41). (See AARON.) The Israelites passed
this mountain several times in their wanderings. It bears the
modern name of Jebel Harun, and is the highest and most
conspicious of the whole range. It stands about midway between
the Dead Sea and the Elanitic gulf. It has two summits, in the
hallow between which it is supposed that Aaron died. Others,
however, suppose that this mountain is the modern Jebel Madurah,
on the opposite, i.e., the western, side of the Arabah.
(2.) One of the marks of the northern boundary of Palestine
(Num. 34:7, 8). Nowhere else mentioned. Perhaps it is one of the
peaks of Lebanon.
desert or mountain of the dried-up ground, a general name for
the whole mountain range of which Sinai was one of the summits
(Ex. 3:1; 17:6; 33:6; Ps. 106:19, etc.). The modern name of the
whole range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about 2
miles long by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at
its north-east end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites
encamped for nearly a whole year. (See SINAI.)
consecrated, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38).
cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves
which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was "Seir," who probably
gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch
of the Hivites (Gen. 14:6; 36:20-30; 1 Chr. 1:38, 39). They were
dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people
gradually became extinct (Deut. 2:12-22).
banning; i.e., placing under a "ban," or devoting to utter
destruction. After the manifestation of God's anger against the
Israelites, on account of their rebellion and their murmurings
when the spies returned to the camp at Kadesh, in the wilderness
of Paran, with an evil report of the land, they quickly repented
of their conduct, and presumed to go up "to the head of the
mountain," seeking to enter the Promised Land, but without the
presence of the Lord, without the ark of the convenant, and
without Moses. The Amalekites and the Canaanites came down and
"smote and discomfited them even unto Hormah" (Num. 14:45). This
place, or perhaps the watch-tower commanding it, was originally
called Zephath (Judg. 1:17), the modern Sebaiteh. Afterwards
(Num. 21:1-3) Arad, the king of the Canaanites, at the close of
the wanderings, when the Israelites were a second time encamped
at Kadesh, "fought against them, and took some of them
prisoners." But Israel vowed a vow unto the Lord utterly to
destroy the cities of the Canaanites; they "banned" them, and
hence the place was now called Hormah. But this "ban" was not
fully executed till the time of Joshua, who finally conquered
the king of this district, so that the ancient name Zephath
became "Hormah" (Josh. 12:14; Judg. 1:17).
Trumpets were at first horns perforated at the tip, used for
various purposes (Josh. 6:4,5).
Flasks or vessels were made of horn (1 Sam. 16:1, 13; 1 Kings
But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the
projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings (Ex. 27:2)
and of incense (30:2). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings
were to be smeared with the blood of the slain bullock (29:12;
Lev. 4:7-18). The criminal, when his crime was accidental, found
an asylum by laying hold of the horns of the altar (1 Kings
The word also denotes the peak or summit of a hill (Isa. 5:1,
where the word "hill" is the rendering of the same Hebrew word).
This word is used metaphorically also for strength (Deut.
33:17) and honour (Job 16:15; Lam. 2:3). Horns are emblems of
power, dominion, glory, and fierceness, as they are the chief
means of attack and defence with the animals endowed with them
(Dan. 8:5, 9; 1 Sam. 2:1; 16:1, 13; 1 Kings 1:39; 22:11; Josh.
6:4, 5; Ps. 75:5, 10; 132:17; Luke 1:69, etc.). The expression
"horn of salvation," applied to Christ, means a salvation of
strength, or a strong Saviour (Luke 1:69). To have the horn
"exalted" denotes prosperity and triumph (Ps. 89:17, 24). To
"lift up" the horn is to act proudly (Zech. 1:21).
Horns are also the symbol of royal dignity and power (Jer.
48:25; Zech. 1:18; Dan. 8:24).
Heb. tsir'ah, "stinging", (Ex. 23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12).
The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by
which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the
Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a
metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize
the people as a "terror of God" (Gen. 35:5), the consternation
with which God would inspire the Canaanites. In Palestine there
are four species of hornets, differing from our hornets, being
larger in size, and they are very abundant. They "attack human
beings in a very furious manner." "The furious attack of a swarm
of hornets drives cattle and horses to madness, and has even
caused the death of the animals."
two caverns, a city of Moab to the south of the Arnon, built,
apparently, upon an eminence, and a place of some importance
(Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:3, 5, 34).
the designation of Sanballat (Neh. 2:10, 19), a native of
Horonaim, or of one of the two Beth-horons, the "upper" or the
"nether," mentioned in Josh. 16:3,5.
always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike
operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse is described Job
39:19-25. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the
Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition,
Deut. 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2
Sam. 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly
multiplied their number (1 Kings 4:26; 10:26, 29). After this,
horses were freely used in Israel (1 Kings 22:4; 2 Kings 3:7;
9:21, 33; 11:16). The furniture of the horse consisted simply of
a bridle (Isa. 30:28) and a curb (Ps. 32:9).
a gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge,
leading from Zion to the temple (Neh. 3:28; Jer. 31:40).
occurs only in Prov. 30:15 (Heb. 'alukah); the generic name for
any blood-sucking annelid. There are various species in the
marshes and pools of Palestine. That here referred to, the
Hoemopis, is remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is
therefore not used for medical purposes. They are spoken of in
the East with feelings of aversion and horror, because of their
propensity to fasten on the tongue and nostrils of horses when
they come to drink out of the pools. The medicinal leech (Hirudo
medicinalis), besides other species of leeches, are common in
the waters of Syria.
Heb. ba'al parash, "master of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned
Ex. 14:9 were "mounted men", i.e., men who rode in chariots. The
army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We
find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry
(2 Chr. 12:3). (See HORSE.)
(1.) A place on the border of the tribe of Asher (Josh.
19:29), a little to the south of Zidon.
(2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1 Chr. 16:38).
Save now! or Save, we beseech, (Matt. 21:9). This was a
customary form of acclamation at the feast of Tabernacles.
(Comp. Ps. 118:25.)
(Dan. 3:21), a tunic or undergarment.
salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of
prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of
Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar,
rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of
Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the
localities of Ephraim (5:1; 6:8, 9; 12:12; 14:6, etc.); by
passages like 1:2, where the kingdom is styled 'the land', and
7:5, where the Israelitish king is designated as 'our' king."
The period of his ministry (extending to some sixty years) is
indicated in the superscription (Hos. 1:1, 2). He is the only
prophet of Israel who has left any written prophecy.
Hosea, Prophecies of
This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets." "The
probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly
national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest
tone, and vivid representations." This was the longest of the
prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied
in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period
of Israel's decline and fall. Their sins had brought upon them
great national disasters. "Their homicides and fornication,
their perjury and theft, their idolatry and impiety, are
censured and satirized with a faithful severity." He was a
contemporary of Isaiah. The book may be divided into two parts,
the first containing chapters 1-3, and symbolically representing
the idolatry of Israel under imagery borrowed from the
matrimonial relation. The figures of marriage and adultery are
common in the Old Testament writings to represent the spiritual
relations between Jehovah and the people of Israel. Here we see
the apostasy of Israel and their punishment, with their future
repentance, forgiveness, and restoration.
The second part, containing 4-14, is a summary of Hosea's
discourses, filled with denunciations, threatenings,
exhortations, promises, and revelations of mercy.
Quotations from Hosea are found in Matt. 2:15; 9:15; 12:7;
Rom. 9:25, 26. There are, in addition, various allusions to it
in other places (Luke 23:30; Rev. 6:16, comp. Hos. 10:8; Rom.
9:25, 26; 1 Pet. 2:10, comp. Hos. 1:10, etc.).
As regards the style of this writer, it has been said that
"each verse forms a whole for itself, like one heavy toll in a
funeral knell." "Inversions (7:8; 9:11, 13; 12: 8), anacolutha
(9:6; 12:8, etc.), ellipses (9:4; 13:9, etc.), paranomasias, and
plays upon words, are very characteristic of Hosea (8:7; 9:15;
10:5; 11:5; 12:11)."
(1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards
called Joshua (Num. 13:8, 16; Deut. 32:44).
(2.) 1 Chr. 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time.
(3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew
his predecessor, Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the
throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2
Kings 17:1, 2). Soon after this he submitted to Shalmaneser, the
Assyrian king, who a second time invaded the land to punish
Hoshea, because of his withholding tribute which he had promised
to pay. A second revolt brought back the Assyrian king Sargon,
who besieged Samaria, and carried the ten tribes away beyond the
Euphrates, B.C. 720 (2 Kings 17:5, 6; 18:9-12). No more is heard
of Hoshea. He disappeared like "foam upon the water" (Hos. 10:7;
an entertainer (Rom. 16:23); a tavern-keeper, the keeper of a
caravansary (Luke 10:35).
In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first
only of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry (1 Kings
4:26; 10:26). Every male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of
age was bound by the law to bear arms when necessary (Num. 1:3;
26:2; 2 Chr. 25:5).
Saul was the first to form a standing army (1 Sam. 13:2;
24:2). This example was followed by David (1 Chr. 27:1), and
Solomon (1 Kings 4:26), and by the kings of Israel and Judah (2
Chr. 17:14; 26:11; 2 Kings 11:4, etc.).
a person delivered into the hands of another as a security for
the performance of some promise, etc. (2 Kings 14:14; 2 Chr.
Host of heaven
The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Gen. 2:1). When the
Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deut. 4:19; 2
Kings 17:16; 21:3,5; 23:5; Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5; Acts 7:42).
to hamstring, i.e., sever the "tendon of Achilles" of the hinder
legs of captured horses (Josh. 11:6; 2 Sam. 8:4; 1 Chr. 18:4),
so as to render them useless.
First found in Dan. 3:6; 4:19, 33;5:5. It is the rendering of
the Chaldee shaah, meaning a "moment," a "look." It is used in
the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season
(Matt. 8:13; Luke 12:39).
With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were
"morning, evening, and noon-day" (Ps. 55:17, etc.). The Greeks,
following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve hours.
The Jews, during the Captivity, learned also from the
Babylonians this method of dividing time. When Judea became
subject to the Romans, the Jews adopted the Roman mode of
reckoning time. The night was divided into four watches (Luke
12:38; Matt. 14:25; 13:25). Frequent allusion is also made to
hours (Matt. 25:13; 26:40, etc.). (See DAY.)
An hour was the twelfth part of the day, reckoning from
sunrise to sunset, and consequently it perpetually varied in
Till their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They
then for the first time inhabited cities (Gen. 47:3; Ex. 12:7;
Heb. 11:9). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the
Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the
Conquest took possession of the captured cities, and seem to
have followed the methods of building that had been pursued by
the Canaanites. Reference is made to the stone (1 Kings 7:9;
Isa. 9:10) and marble (1 Chr. 29:2) used in building, and to the
internal wood-work of the houses (1 Kings 6:15; 7:2; 10:11, 12;
2 Chr. 3:5; Jer. 22:14). "Ceiled houses" were such as had beams
inlaid in the walls to which wainscotting was fastened (Ezra
6:4; Jer. 22:14; Hag. 1:4). "Ivory houses" had the upper parts
of the walls adorned with figures in stucco with gold and ivory
(1 Kings 22:39; 2 Chr. 3:6; Ps. 45:8).
The roofs of the dwelling-houses were flat, and are often
alluded to in Scripture (2 Sam. 11:2; Isa. 22:1; Matt. 24:17).
Sometimes tents or booths were erected on them (2 Sam. 16:22).
They were protected by parapets or low walls (Deut. 22:8). On
the house-tops grass sometimes grew (Prov. 19:13; 27:15; Ps.
129:6, 7). They were used, not only as places of recreation in
the evening, but also sometimes as sleeping-places at night (1
Sam. 9:25, 26; 2 Sam. 11:2; 16:22; Dan. 4:29; Job 27:18; Prov.
21:9), and as places of devotion (Jer. 32:29; 19:13).
decreed, a town near Zebulun, not far from Jordan, on the border
of Naphtali (Josh. 19:34). (See HELKATH.)
circle, the second son of Aram (Gen. 10:23), and grandson of
weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted
regarding the "book of the law" discovered by the high priest
Hilkiah (2 Kings 22:14-20; 2 Chr. 34:22-28). She resided in that
part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., "the college;" R.V.,
"the second quarter"), supposed by some to be the suburb between
the inner and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra.
Miriam (Ex. 15:20) and Deborah (Judg. 4:4) are the only others
who bear the title of "prophetess," for the word in Isa. 8:3
means only the prophet's wife.
Humiliation of Christ
(Phil. 2:8), seen in (1) his birth (Gal. 4:4; Luke 2:7; John
1:46; Heb. 2:9), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation (Isa.
53; Matt. 26:59, 67; Ps. 22:6; Matt. 26:68), (4) his soul (Ps.
22:1; Matt. 4:1-11; Luke 22:44; Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15), (5) his
death (Luke 23; John 19; Mark 15:24, 25), (6) and his burial
(Isa. 53:9; Matt. 27:57, 58, 60).
His humiliation was necessary (1) to execute the purpose of
God (Acts 2:23, 24; Ps. 40:6-8), (2) fulfil the Old Testament
types and prophecies, (3) satisfy the law in the room of the
guilty (Isa. 53; Heb. 9:12, 15), procure for them eternal
redemption, (4) and to show us an example.
a prominent Christian grace (Rom. 12:3; 15:17, 18; 1 Cor. 3:5-7;
2 Cor. 3:5; Phil. 4:11-13). It is a state of mind well pleasing
to God (1 Pet. 3:4); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Ps.
69:32, 33), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22).
Christ has set us an example of humility (Phil. 2:6-8). We
should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lam. 3:39),
and by the thought that it is the way to honour (Prov. 16:18),
and that the greatest promises are made to the humble (Ps.
147:6; Isa. 57:15; 66:2; 1 Pet. 5:5). It is a "great paradox in
Christianity that it makes humility the avenue to glory."
mentioned first in Gen. 10:9 in connection with Nimrod. Esau was
"a cunning hunter" (Gen. 25:27). Hunting was practised by the
Hebrews after their settlement in the "Land of Promise" (Lev.
17:15; Prov. 12:27). The lion and other ravenous beasts were
found in Palestine (1 Sam. 17:34; 2 Sam. 23:20; 1 Kings 13:24;
Ezek. 19:3-8), and it must have been necessary to hunt and
destroy them. Various snares and gins were used in hunting (Ps.
91:3; Amos 3:5; 2 Sam. 23:20).
War is referred to under the idea of hunting (Jer. 16:16;
a hole, as of a viper, etc.
(1.) A son of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:19,
50; 4:1, 4; comp. 2 Chr. 1:5).
(2.) The husband of Miriam, Moses' sister (Ex. 17:10-12). He
was associated with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was
absent on Sinai (Ex. 24:14). He was probably of the tribe of
Judah, and grandfather of Bezaleel (Ex. 31:2; 35:30; 1 Chr.
(3.) One of the five princes of Midian who were defeated and
slain by the Israelites under the command of Phinehas (Num.
linen-worker, one of David's heroes, a native of the valley of
Mount Gaash (1 Chr. 11:32).
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the
whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a
husband (Matt. 1:16, 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was
exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7; 24:5).
one whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of
the first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable (Gen.
9:20; 26:12, 14; 37:7, etc.). All the Hebrews, except those
engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See AGRICULTURE.)
quick, "the Archite," "the king's friend" (1 Chr. 27:33). When
David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of
Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met
Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of
counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the
ranks of Absalom (2 Sam. 15:32, 37; 16:16-18). It was by his
advice that Absalom refrained from immediately pursuing after
David. By this delay the cause of Absalom was ruined, for it
gave David time to muster his forces.
In Num. 6:4 (Heb. zag) it means the "skin" of a grape. In 2
Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon) it means a "sack" for grain, as
rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16, in the parable
of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree,
or Ceratonia siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however,
that it was on the husks of this tree that John the Baptist fed,
it is called "St. John's bread" and "locust tree." This tree is
in "February covered with innumerable purple-red pendent
blossoms, which ripen in April and May into large crops of pods
from 6 to 10 inches long, flat, brown, narrow, and bent like a
horn (whence the Greek name keratia, meaning 'little horns'),
with a sweetish taste when still unripe. Enormous quantities of
these are gathered for sale in various towns and for
exportation." "They were eaten as food, though only by the
poorest of the poor, in the time of our Lord." The bean is
called a "gerah," which is used as the name of the smallest
Hebrew weight, twenty of these making a shekel.
occurs only Eph. 5:19 and Col. 3:16. The verb to "sing an hymn"
occurs Matt. 26:30 and Mark 14:26. The same Greek word is
rendered to "sing praises" Acts 16:25 (R.V., "sing hymns") and
Heb. 2:12. The "hymn" which our Lord sang with his disciples at
the last Supper is generally supposed to have been the latter
part of the Hallel, comprehending Ps. 113-118. It was thus a
name given to a number of psalms taken together and forming a
The noun hymn is used only with reference to the services of
the Greeks, and was distinguished from the psalm. The Greek
tunes required Greek hymns. Our information regarding the
hymnology of the early Christians is very limited.
one who puts on a mask and feigns himself to be what he is not;
a dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely rebuked the scribes
and Pharisees for their hypocrisy (Matt. 6:2, 5, 16). "The
hypocrite's hope shall perish" (Job 8:13). The Hebrew word here
rendered "hypocrite" rather means the "godless" or "profane," as
it is rendered in Jer. 23:11, i.e., polluted with crimes.
(Heb. 'ezob; LXX. hyssopos), first mentioned in Ex. 12:22 in
connection with the institution of the Passover. We find it
afterwards mentioned in Lev. 14:4, 6, 52; Num. 19:6, 18; Heb.
9:19. It is spoken of as a plant "springing out of the wall" (1
Kings 4:33). Many conjectures have been formed as to what this
plant really was. Some contend that it was a species of marjoram
(origanum), six species of which are found in Palestine. Others
with more probability think that it was the caper plant, the
Capparis spinosa of Linnaeus. This plant grew in Egypt, in the
desert of Sinai, and in Palestine. It was capable of producing a
stem three or four feet in length (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36.
Comp. John 19:29).
chosen, one of David's sons (1 Chr. 3:6; 2 Sam. 5:15).
people-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh (Josh. 17:11), from
which the Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites
(Judg. 1:27). It is also called Bileam (1 Chr. 6:70). It was
probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of
illustrious, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:8-10). He ruled
frequently mentioned (Job 6:16; 38:29; Ps. 147:17, etc.). (See CRYSTAL.)
When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in
the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried
to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas "was near to be delivered. And
when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and
that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed
herself and travailed" (1 Sam. 4:19-22). In her great distress
she regarded not "the women that stood by her," but named the
child that was born "Ichabod" i.e., no glory, saying, "The glory
is departed from Isreal;" and with that word on her lips she
the capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul
and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first
missionary journey (Acts 13:50, 51). Here they were persecuted
by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to
Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the
church which had been founded there (14:21,22). It was probably
again visited by Paul during his third missionary journey along
with Silas (18:23). It is the modern Konieh, at the foot of
Mount Taurus, about 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean.
snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun (Josh. 19:15).
It has been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of
(1.) Timely (1 Chr. 6:21). A Gershonite Levite.
(2.) Lovely. The son of Zechariah (1 Chr. 27:21), the ruler of
Manasseh in David's time.
(3.) Timely. The father of Ahinadab, who was one of Solomon's
purveyors (1 Kings 4:14).
(4.) Lovely. A prophet of Judah who wrote the history of
Rehoboam and Abijah (2 Chr. 12:15). He has been identified with
Oded (2 Chr. 15:1).
(5.) Lovely. The father of Berachiah, and grandfather of the
prophet Zechariah (Zech. 1:1, 7). He returned from Babylon (Neh.
(1.) Heb. aven, "nothingness;" "vanity" (Isa. 66:3; 41:29; Deut.
32:21; 1 Kings 16:13; Ps. 31:6; Jer. 8:19, etc.).
(2.) 'Elil, "a thing of naught" (Ps. 97:7; Isa. 19:3); a word
of contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezek. 30:13).
(3.) 'Emah, "terror," in allusion to the hideous form of idols
(4.) Miphletzeth, "a fright;" "horror" (1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chr.
(5.) Bosheth, "shame;" "shameful thing" (Jer. 11:13; Hos.
9:10); as characterizing the obscenity of the worship of Baal.
(6.) Gillulim, also a word of contempt, "dung;" "refuse"
(Ezek. 16:36; 20:8; Deut. 29:17, marg.).
(7.) Shikkuts, "filth;" "impurity" (Ezek. 37:23; Nah. 3:6).
(8.) Semel, "likeness;" "a carved image" (Deut. 4:16).
(9.) Tselem, "a shadow" (Dan. 3:1; 1 Sam. 6:5), as
distinguished from the "likeness," or the exact counterpart.
(10.) Temunah, "similitude" (Deut. 4:12-19). Here Moses
forbids the several forms of Gentile idolatry.
(11.) 'Atsab, "a figure;" from the root "to fashion," "to
labour;" denoting that idols are the result of man's labour
(Isa. 48:5; Ps. 139:24, "wicked way;" literally, as some
translate, "way of an idol").
(12.) Tsir, "a form;" "shape" (Isa. 45:16).
(13.) Matztzebah, a "statue" set up (Jer. 43:13); a memorial
stone like that erected by Jacob (Gen. 28:18; 31:45; 35:14, 20),
by Joshua (4:9), and by Samuel (1 Sam. 7:12). It is the name
given to the statues of Baal (2 Kings 3:2; 10:27).
(14.) Hammanim, "sun-images." Hamman is a synonym of Baal, the
sun-god of the Phoenicians (2 Chr. 34:4, 7; 14:3, 5; Isa. 17:8).
(15.) Maskith, "device" (Lev. 26:1; Num. 33:52). In Lev. 26:1,
the words "image of stone" (A.V.) denote "a stone or cippus with
the image of an idol, as Baal, Astarte, etc." In Ezek. 8:12,
"chambers of imagery" (maskith), are "chambers of which the
walls are painted with the figures of idols;" comp. ver. 10, 11.
(16.) Pesel, "a graven" or "carved image" (Isa. 44:10-20). It
denotes also a figure cast in metal (Deut. 7:25; 27:15; Isa.
(17.) Massekah, "a molten image" (Deut. 9:12; Judg. 17:3, 4).
(18.) Teraphim, pl., "images," family gods (penates)
worshipped by Abram's kindred (Josh. 24:14). Put by Michal in
David's bed (Judg. 17:5; 18:14, 17, 18, 20; 1 Sam. 19:13).
"Nothing can be more instructive and significant than this
multiplicity and variety of words designating the instruments
and inventions of idolatry."
image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul
describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21-25: men forsook
God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28).
The forms of idolatry are,
(1.) Fetishism, or the worship of
trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc.
(2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars,
as the supposed powers of nature.
(3.) Hero worship, the worship of deceased ancestors, or of
In Scripture, idolatry is regarded as of heathen origin, and
as being imported among the Hebrews through contact with heathen
nations. The first allusion to idolatry is in the account of
Rachel stealing her father's teraphim (Gen. 31:19), which were
the relics of the worship of other gods by Laban's progenitors
"on the other side of the river in old time" (Josh. 24:2).
During their long residence in Egypt the Hebrews fell into
idolatry, and it was long before they were delivered from it
(Josh. 24:14; Ezek. 20:7). Many a token of God's displeasure
fell upon them because of this sin.
The idolatry learned in Egypt was probably rooted out from
among the people during the forty years' wanderings; but when
the Jews entered Palestine, they came into contact with the
monuments and associations of the idolatry of the old
Canaanitish races, and showed a constant tendency to depart from
the living God and follow the idolatrous practices of those
heathen nations. It was their great national sin, which was only
effectually rebuked by the Babylonian exile. That exile finally
purified the Jews of all idolatrous tendencies.
The first and second commandments are directed against
idolatry of every form. Individuals and communities were equally
amenable to the rigorous code. The individual offender was
devoted to destruction (Ex. 22:20). His nearest relatives were
not only bound to denounce him and deliver him up to punishment
(Deut. 13:20-10), but their hands were to strike the first blow
when, on the evidence of two witnesses at least, he was stoned
(Deut. 17:2-7). To attempt to seduce others to false worship was
a crime of equal enormity (13:6-10). An idolatrous nation shared
the same fate. No facts are more strongly declared in the Old
Testament than that the extermination of the Canaanites was the
punishment of their idolatry (Ex. 34:15, 16; Deut. 7; 12:29-31;
20:17), and that the calamities of the Israelites were due to
the same cause (Jer. 2:17). "A city guilty of idolatry was
looked upon as a cancer in the state; it was considered to be in
rebellion, and treated according to the laws of war. Its
inhabitants and all their cattle were put to death." Jehovah was
the theocratic King of Israel, the civil Head of the
commonwealth, and therefore to an Israelite idolatry was a state
offence (1 Sam. 15:23), high treason. On taking possession of
the land, the Jews were commanded to destroy all traces of every
kind of the existing idolatry of the Canaanites (Ex. 23:24, 32;
34:13; Deut. 7:5, 25; 12:1-3).
In the New Testament the term idolatry is used to designate
covetousness (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:13; Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5).
the Greek form of Edom (Isa. 34:5, 6; Ezek. 35:15; 36:5, but in
R.V. "Edom"). (See EDOM).
(1.) Num. 13:7, one of the spies of the tribe of
Issachar. (2.) Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one of David's
warriors (2 Sam. 23:36). (3.) 1 Chr. 3:22.
(1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29).
(2.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness
ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites in
the wilderness, "in the border of Moab" (Num. 33:44).
a ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at
the instance of Asa (1 Kings 15:20), and afterwards by
Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2 Kings 15:29) in the reign of
Pekah; now el-Khiam.
an Ahohite, one of David's chief warriors (1 Chr. 11:29); called
also Zalmon (2 Sam. 23:28).
a country to the north-west of Macedonia, on the eastern shores
of the Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended in Dalmatia, a
name formerly given to the southern part of Illyricum (2 Tim.
4:10). It was traversed by Paul in his third missionary journey
(Rom. 15:19). It was the farthest district he had reached in
preaching the gospel of Christ. This reference to Illyricum is
in harmony with Acts 20:2, inasmuch as the apostle's journey
over the parts of Macedonia would bring him to the borders of
only in the phrase "chambers of his imagery" (Ezek. 8:12). (See CHAMBER.)
replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet (2 Chr. 18:7,8).
God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa. 7:14
and 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words
as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an
interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew
(1.) The head of the sixteenth priestly order (1 Chr.
24:14). (2.) Jer. 20:1. (3.) Ezra 2:37; Neh. 7:40. (4.) Ezra
2:59; Neh. 7:61. (5.) The father of Zadok (Neh. 3:29).
perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught
in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of
Moses (Gen. 5:22, 24; 25:8; 37:35; 47:9; 49:29, comp. Heb.
11:13-16; Ex. 3:6, comp. Matt. 22:23). It is more clearly and
fully taught in the later books (Isa. 14:9; Ps. 17:15; 49:15;
73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews.
With the full revelation of the gospel this doctrine was
"brought to light" (2 Tim. 1:10; 1 Cor. 15; 2 Cor. 5:1-6; 1
is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to
a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is
imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs,
and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the
righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him,
or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3)
our sins are imputed to Christ, i.e., he assumed our
"law-place," undertook to answer the demands of justice for our
sins. In all these cases the nature of imputation is the same
(Rom. 5:12-19; comp. Philemon 1:18, 19).
that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into
union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and
man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he
of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united
to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1 Cor. 2:8; Heb.
2:11-14; 1 Tim. 3:16; Gal. 4:4, etc.). The union is
hypostatical, i.e., is personal; the two natures are not mixed
or confounded, and it is perpetual.
a fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary."
It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Ex. 30:34-36).
That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense"
(30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and
besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place,
and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest
in the holy of holies (30:7, 8). It was the symbol of prayer
(Ps. 141:1,2; Rev. 5:8; 8:3, 4).
occurs only in Esther 1:1 and 8:9, where the extent of the
dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so
designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the
country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the
products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have
carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, 24).
The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup
for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the
girdle (Ezek. 9:2, 3,11). The word "inkhorn" was used by the
translators, because in former times in this country horns were
used for containing ink.
in the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or
caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not
alluded to in the Old Testament. The "inn" mentioned in Ex. 4:24
was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans
were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7
the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the
beasts of their burdens. It is rendered "guest-chamber" in Mark
14:14 and Luke 22:11. In Luke 10:34 the word so rendered is
different. That inn had an "inn-keeper," who attended to the
wants of travellers.
that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed
to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings
infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God"
(R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2 Tim. 3:16. This is
true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their
being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as
"theopneustic," i.e., "breathed into by God" in such a sense
that the writers were supernaturally guided to express exactly
what God intended them to express as a revelation of his mind
and will. The testimony of the sacred writers themselves
abundantly demonstrates this truth; and if they are infallible
as teachers of doctrine, then the doctrine of plenary
inspiration must be accepted. There are no errors in the Bible
as it came from God, none have been proved to exist.
Difficulties and phenomena we cannot explain are not errors. All
these books of the Old and New Testaments are inspired. We do
not say that they contain, but that they are, the Word of God.
The gift of inspiration rendered the writers the organs of God,
for the infallible communication of his mind and will, in the
very manner and words in which it was originally given.
As to the nature of inspiration we have no information. This
only we know, it rendered the writers infallible. They were all
equally inspired, and are all equally infallible. The
inspiration of the sacred writers did not change their
characters. They retained all their individual peculiarities as
thinkers or writers. (See BIBLE; WORD OF GOD.)
Intercession of Christ
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the
offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual
intercession for us.
When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34;
John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his
priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence
of God for us (Heb. 9:12,24).
His advocacy with the Father for his people rests on the basis
of his own all-perfect sacrifice. Thus he pleads for and obtains
the fulfilment of all the promises of the everlasting covenant
(1 John 2:1; John 17:24; Heb. 7:25). He can be "touched with the
feeling of our infirmities," and is both a merciful and a
faithful high priest (Heb. 2:17, 18; 4:15, 16). This
intercession is an essential part of his mediatorial work.
Through him we have "access" to the Father (John 14:6; Eph.
2:18; 3:12). "The communion of his people with the Father will
ever be sustained through him as mediatorial Priest" (Ps. 110:4;
Intercession of the Spirit
(Rom. 8:26, 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech.
6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to
all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for
them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They
both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as
his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate
in heaven, according to the provisions of the everlasting
covenant. The Holy Spirit works upon our minds and hearts,
enlightening and quickening, and thus determining our desires
'according to the will of God,' as our advocate within us. The
work of the one is complementary to that of the other, and
together they form a complete whole.", Hodge's Outlines of
set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1 Chr.
(1.) A Tekoite, one of David's thirty warriors
(2 Sam. 23:26).
(2.) An Ithrite, also one of David's heroes (2 Sam. 23:38).
(3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2 Sam. 20:26) or
confidential adviser (comp. 2 Sam. 8:18; 1 Chr. 18:17).
runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the father
of Mehujael (Gen. 4:18), and grandson of Cain.
citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe in Mount Seir (Gen. 36:43).
according to some MSS., meaning "city of destruction." Other
MSS. read 'Irhahares; rendered "city of the sun", Isa. 19:18,
where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to
Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews
would so increase in number there as that the city would fall
under their influence. This might be in the time of the
Ptolemies. (See ON.)
Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Gen. 4:22).
The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David
prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1 Chr. 22:3:
29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market
of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made
of iron (Deut. 27:5; 19:5; Josh. 17:16, 18; 1 Sam. 17:7; 2 Sam.
12:31; 2 Kings 6:5, 6; 1 Chr. 22:3; Isa. 10:34).
Figuratively, a yoke of iron (Deut. 28:48) denotes hard
service; a rod of iron (Ps. 2:9), a stern government; a pillar
of iron (Jer. 1:18), a strong support; a furnace of iron (Deut.
4:20), severe labour; a bar of iron (Job 40:18), strength;
fetters of iron (Ps. 107:10), affliction; giving silver for iron
(Isa. 60:17), prosperity.
As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up
in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in
numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the
foot (Deut. 11:10).
For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or
pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the
banks of the Nile to the present day.
laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom of the ten tribes (Amos
(2.) The only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest
lived of the three patriarchs (Gen. 21:1-3). He was circumcised
when eight days old (4-7); and when he was probably two years
old a great feast was held in connection with his being weaned.
The next memorable event in his life is that connected with
the command of God given to Abraham to offer him up as a
sacrifice on a mountain in the land of Moriah (Gen. 22). (See ABRAHAM.) When he was forty years of age Rebekah was
chosen for his wife (Gen. 24). After the death and burial of his
father he took up his residence at Beer-lahai-roi (25:7-11),
where his two sons, Esau and Jacob, were born (21-26), the
former of whom seems to have been his favourite son (27,28).
In consequence of a famine (Gen. 26:1) Isaac went to Gerar,
where he practised deception as to his relation to Rebekah,
imitating the conduct of his father in Egypt (12:12-20) and in
Gerar (20:2). The Philistine king rebuked him for his
After sojourning for some time in the land of the Philistines,
he returned to Beersheba, where God gave him fresh assurance of
covenant blessing, and where Abimelech entered into a covenant
of peace with him.
The next chief event in his life was the blessing of his sons
(Gen. 27:1). He died at Mamre, "being old and full of days"
(35:27-29), one hundred and eighty years old, and was buried in
the cave of Machpelah.
In the New Testament reference is made to his having been
"offered up" by his father (Heb. 11:17; James 2:21), and to his
blessing his sons (Heb. 11:20). As the child of promise, he is
contrasted with Ishmael (Rom. 9:7, 10; Gal. 4:28; Heb. 11:18).
Isaac is "at once a counterpart of his father in simple
devoutness and purity of life, and a contrast in his passive
weakness of character, which in part, at least, may have sprung
from his relations to his mother and wife. After the expulsion
of Ishmael and Hagar, Isaac had no competitor, and grew up in
the shade of Sarah's tent, moulded into feminine softness by
habitual submission to her strong, loving will." His life was so
quiet and uneventful that it was spent "within the circle of a
few miles; so guileless that he let Jacob overreach him rather
than disbelieve his assurance; so tender that his mother's death
was the poignant sorrow of years; so patient and gentle that
peace with his neighbours was dearer than even such a coveted
possession as a well of living water dug by his own men; so
grandly obedient that he put his life at his father's disposal;
so firm in his reliance on God that his greatest concern through
life was to honour the divine promise given to his race.",
Geikie's Hours, etc.
(Heb. Yesh'yahu, i.e., "the salvation of Jehovah").
(1.) The son
of Amoz (Isa. 1:1; 2:1), who was apparently a man of humble
rank. His wife was called "the prophetess" (8:3), either because
she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg.
4:4) and Huldah (2 Kings 22:14-20), or simply because she was
the wife of "the prophet" (Isa. 38:1). He had two sons, who bore
He exercised the functions of his office during the reigns of
Uzziah (or Azariah), Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah (1:1). Uzziah
reigned fifty-two years (B.C. 810-759), and Isaiah must have
begun his career a few years before Uzziah's death, probably
B.C. 762. He lived till the fourteenth year of Hezekiah, and in
all likelihood outlived that monarch (who died B.C. 698), and
may have been contemporary for some years with Manasseh. Thus
Isaiah may have prophesied for the long period of at least
His first call to the prophetical office is not recorded. A
second call came to him "in the year that King Uzziah died"
(Isa. 6:1). He exercised his ministry in a spirit of
uncompromising firmness and boldness in regard to all that bore
on the interests of religion. He conceals nothing and keeps
nothing back from fear of man. He was also noted for his
spirituality and for his deep-toned reverence toward "the holy
One of Israel."
In early youth Isaiah must have been moved by the invasion of
Israel by the Assyrian monarch Pul (q.v.), 2 Kings 15:19; and
again, twenty years later, when he had already entered on his
office, by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser and his career of
conquest. Ahaz, king of Judah, at this crisis refused to
co-operate with the kings of Israel and Syria in opposition to
the Assyrians, and was on that account attacked and defeated by
Rezin of Damascus and Pekah of Samaria (2 Kings 16:5; 2 Chr.
28:5, 6). Ahaz, thus humbled, sided with Assyria, and sought the
aid of Tiglath-pileser against Israel and Syria. The consequence
was that Rezin and Pekah were conquered and many of the people
carried captive to Assyria (2 Kings 15:29; 16:9; 1 Chr. 5:26).
Soon after this Shalmaneser determined wholly to subdue the
kingdom of Israel. Samaria was taken and destroyed (B.C. 722).
So long as Ahaz reigned, the kingdom of Judah was unmolested by
the Assyrian power; but on his accession to the throne, Hezekiah
(B.C. 726), who "rebelled against the king of Assyria" (2 Kings
18:7), in which he was encouraged by Isaiah, who exhorted the
people to place all their dependence on Jehovah (Isa. 10:24;
37:6), entered into an alliance with the king of Egypt (Isa.
30:2-4). This led the king of Assyria to threaten the king of
Judah, and at length to invade the land. Sennacherib (B.C. 701)
led a powerful army into Palestine. Hezekiah was reduced to
despair, and submitted to the Assyrians (2 Kings 18:14-16). But
after a brief interval war broke out again, and again
Sennacherib (q.v.) led an army into Palestine, one detachment of
which threatened Jerusalem (Isa. 36:2-22; 37:8). Isaiah on that
occasion encouraged Hezekiah to resist the Assyrians (37:1-7),
whereupon Sennacherib sent a threatening letter to Hezekiah,
which he "spread before the Lord" (37:14). The judgement of God
now fell on the Assyrian host. "Like Xerxes in Greece,
Sennacherib never recovered from the shock of the disaster in
Judah. He made no more expeditions against either Southern
Palestine or Egypt." The remaining years of Hezekiah's reign
were peaceful (2 Chr. 32:23, 27-29). Isaiah probably lived to
its close, and possibly into the reign of Manasseh, but the time
and manner of his death are unknown. There is a tradition that
he suffered martyrdom in the heathen reaction in the time of
(2.) One of the heads of the singers in the time of David (1
Chr. 25:3,15, "Jeshaiah").
(3.) A Levite (1 Chr. 26:25).
(4.) Ezra 8:7.
(5.) Neh. 11:7.
Isaiah, The Book of
consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah
(1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (7-14:28), (4) the first half
of Hezekiah's reign (14:28-35), (5) the second half of
Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year
before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah
(B.C. 698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of
sixty-four years. He may, however, have survived Hezekiah, and
may have perished in the way indicated above.
The book, as a whole, has been divided into three main parts:
(1.) The first thirty-five chapters, almost wholly prophetic,
Israel's enemy Assyria, present the Messiah as a mighty Ruler
and King. (2.) Four chapters are historical (36-39), relating to
the times of Hezekiah. (3.) Prophetical (40-66), Israel's enemy
Babylon, describing the Messiah as a suffering victim, meek and
The genuineness of the section Isa. 40-66 has been keenly
opposed by able critics. They assert that it must be the
production of a deutero-Isaiah, who lived toward the close of
the Babylonian captivity. This theory was originated by Koppe, a
German writer at the close of the last century. There are other
portions of the book also (e.g., ch. 13; 24-27; and certain
verses in ch. 14 and 21) which they attribute to some other
prophet than Isaiah. Thus they say that some five or seven, or
even more, unknown prophets had a hand in the production of this
book. The considerations which have led to such a result are
(1.) They cannot, as some say, conceive it possible
that Isaiah, living in B.C. 700, could foretell the appearance
and the exploits of a prince called Cyrus, who would set the
Jews free from captivity one hundred and seventy years after.
(2.) It is alleged that the prophet takes the time of the
Captivity as his standpoint, and speaks of it as then present;
and (3) that there is such a difference between the style and
language of the closing section (40-66) and those of the
preceding chapters as to necessitate a different authorship, and
lead to the conclusion that there were at least two Isaiahs. But
even granting the fact of a great diversity of style and
language, this will not necessitate the conclusion attempted to
be drawn from it. The diversity of subjects treated of and the
peculiarities of the prophet's position at the time the
prophecies were uttered will sufficiently account for this.
The arguments in favour of the unity of the book are quite
conclusive. When the LXX. version was made (about B.C. 250) the
entire contents of the book were ascribed to Isaiah, the son of
Amoz. It is not called in question, moreover, that in the time
of our Lord the book existed in the form in which we now have
it. Many prophecies in the disputed portions are quoted in the
New Testament as the words of Isaiah (Matt. 3:3; Luke 3:4-6;
4:16-41; John 12:38; Acts 8:28; Rom. 10:16-21). Universal and
persistent tradition has ascribed the whole book to one author.
Besides this, the internal evidence, the similarity in the
language and style, in the thoughts and images and rhetorical
ornaments, all points to the same conclusion; and its local
colouring and allusions show that it is obviously of Palestinian
origin. The theory therefore of a double authorship of the book,
much less of a manifold authorship, cannot be maintained. The
book, with all the diversity of its contents, is one, and is, we
believe, the production of the great prophet whose name it
spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot (Gen.
leaving, one of Abraham's sons by Keturah (Gen. 25:2).