a harbour in the south of Crete, some 5 miles to the east of
which was the town of Lasea (Acts 27:8). Here the ship of
Alexandria in which Paul and his companions sailed was detained
a considerable time waiting for a favourable wind. Contrary to
Paul's advice, the master of the ship determined to prosecute
the voyage, as the harbour was deemed incommodious for wintering
in (9-12). The result was that, after a stormy voyage, the
vessel was finally wrecked on the coast of Malta (27:40-44).
(Heb. 'izabhonim), found seven times in Ezek. 27, and nowhere
else. The Authorized Version renders the word thus in all these
instances, except in verse 33, where "wares" is used. The
Revised Version uniformly renders by "wares," which is the
correct rendering of the Hebrew word. It never means "fairs" in
the modern sense of the word.
Faith is in general the persuasion of the mind that a certain
statement is true (Phil. 1:27; 2 Thess. 2:13). Its primary idea
is trust. A thing is true, and therefore worthy of trust. It
admits of many degrees up to full assurance of faith, in
accordance with the evidence on which it rests.
Faith is the result of teaching (Rom. 10:14-17). Knowledge is
an essential element in all faith, and is sometimes spoken of as
an equivalent to faith (John 10:38; 1 John 2:3). Yet the two are
distinguished in this respect, that faith includes in it assent,
which is an act of the will in addition to the act of the
understanding. Assent to the truth is of the essence of faith,
and the ultimate ground on which our assent to any revealed
truth rests is the veracity of God.
Historical faith is the apprehension of and assent to certain
statements which are regarded as mere facts of history.
Temporary faith is that state of mind which is awakened in men
(e.g., Felix) by the exhibition of the truth and by the
influence of religious sympathy, or by what is sometimes styled
the common operation of the Holy Spirit.
Saving faith is so called because it has eternal life
inseparably connected with it. It cannot be better defined than
in the words of the Assembly's Shorter Catechism: "Faith in
Jesus Christ is a saving grace, whereby we receive and rest upon
him alone for salvation, as he is offered to us in the gospel."
The object of saving faith is the whole revealed Word of God.
Faith accepts and believes it as the very truth most sure. But
the special act of faith which unites to Christ has as its
object the person and the work of the Lord Jesus Christ (John
7:38; Acts 16:31). This is the specific act of faith by which a
sinner is justified before God (Rom. 3:22, 25; Gal. 2:16; Phil.
3:9; John 3:16-36; Acts 10:43; 16:31). In this act of faith the
believer appropriates and rests on Christ alone as Mediator in
all his offices.
This assent to or belief in the truth received upon the divine
testimony has always associated with it a deep sense of sin, a
distinct view of Christ, a consenting will, and a loving heart,
together with a reliance on, a trusting in, or resting in
Christ. It is that state of mind in which a poor sinner,
conscious of his sin, flees from his guilty self to Christ his
Saviour, and rolls over the burden of all his sins on him. It
consists chiefly, not in the assent given to the testimony of
God in his Word, but in embracing with fiducial reliance and
trust the one and only Saviour whom God reveals. This trust and
reliance is of the essence of faith. By faith the believer
directly and immediately appropriates Christ as his own. Faith
in its direct act makes Christ ours. It is not a work which God
graciously accepts instead of perfect obedience, but is only the
hand by which we take hold of the person and work of our
Redeemer as the only ground of our salvation.
Saving faith is a moral act, as it proceeds from a renewed
will, and a renewed will is necessary to believing assent to the
truth of God (1 Cor. 2:14; 2 Cor. 4:4). Faith, therefore, has
its seat in the moral part of our nature fully as much as in the
intellectual. The mind must first be enlightened by divine
teaching (John 6:44; Acts 13:48; 2 Cor. 4:6; Eph. 1:17, 18)
before it can discern the things of the Spirit.
Faith is necessary to our salvation (Mark 16:16), not because
there is any merit in it, but simply because it is the sinner's
taking the place assigned him by God, his falling in with what
God is doing.
The warrant or ground of faith is the divine testimony, not
the reasonableness of what God says, but the simple fact that he
says it. Faith rests immediately on, "Thus saith the Lord." But
in order to this faith the veracity, sincerity, and truth of God
must be owned and appreciated, together with his
unchangeableness. God's word encourages and emboldens the sinner
personally to transact with Christ as God's gift, to close with
him, embrace him, give himself to Christ, and take Christ as
his. That word comes with power, for it is the word of God who
has revealed himself in his works, and especially in the cross.
God is to be believed for his word's sake, but also for his
Faith in Christ secures for the believer freedom from
condemnation, or justification before God; a participation in
the life that is in Christ, the divine life (John 14:19; Rom.
6:4-10; Eph. 4:15,16, etc.); "peace with God" (Rom. 5:1); and
sanctification (Acts 26:18; Gal. 5:6; Acts 15:9).
All who thus believe in Christ will certainly be saved (John
6:37, 40; 10:27, 28; Rom. 8:1).
The faith=the gospel (Acts 6:7; Rom. 1:5; Gal. 1:23; 1 Tim.
3:9; Jude 1:3).
as a designation of Christians, means full of faith, trustful,
and not simply trustworthy (Acts 10:45; 16:1; 2 Cor. 6:15; Col.
1:2; 1 Tim. 4:3, 12; 5:16; 6:2; Titus 1:6; Eph. 1:1; 1 Cor.
It is used also of God's word or covenant as true and to be
trusted (Ps. 119:86, 138; Isa. 25:1; 1 Tim. 1:15; Rev. 21:5;
Fall of man
an expression probably borrowed from the Apocryphal Book of
Wisdom, to express the fact of the revolt of our first parents
from God, and the consequent sin and misery in which they and
all their posterity were involved.
The history of the Fall is recorded in Gen. 2 and 3. That
history is to be literally interpreted. It records facts which
underlie the whole system of revealed truth. It is referred to
by our Lord and his apostles not only as being true, but as
furnishing the ground of all God's subsequent dispensations and
dealings with the children of men. The record of Adam's
temptation and fall must be taken as a true historical account,
if we are to understand the Bible at all as a revelation of
God's purpose of mercy.
The effects of this first sin upon our first parents
themselves were (1) "shame, a sense of degradation and
pollution; (2) dread of the displeasure of God, or a sense of
guilt, and the consequent desire to hide from his presence.
These effects were unavoidable. They prove the loss not only of
innocence but of original righteousness, and, with it, of the
favour and fellowship of God. The state therefore to which Adam
was reduced by his disobedience, so far as his subjective
condition is concerned, was analogous to that of the fallen
angels. He was entirely and absolutely ruined" (Hodge's
But the unbelief and disobedience of our first parents brought
not only on themselves this misery and ruin, it entailed also
the same sad consequences on all their descendants.
guilt, i.e., liability to punishment, of that sin comes by
imputation upon all men, because all were represented by Adam in
the covenant of works (q.v.). (See IMPUTATION.)
(2.) Hence, also, all his descendants inherit a corrupt
nature. In all by nature there is an inherent and prevailing
tendency to sin. This universal depravity is taught by universal
experience. All men sin as soon as they are capable of moral
actions. The testimony of the Scriptures to the same effect is
most abundant (Rom. 1; 2; 3:1-19, etc.).
(3.) This innate depravity is total: we are by nature "dead in
trespasses and sins," and must be "born again" before we can
enter into the kingdom (John 3:7, etc.).
(4.) Resulting from this "corruption of our whole nature" is
our absolute moral inability to change our nature or to obey the
law of God.
Commenting on John 9:3, Ryle well remarks: "A deep and
instructive principle lies in these words. They surely throw
some light on that great question, the origin of evil. God has
thought fit to allow evil to exist in order that he may have a
platform for showing his mercy, grace, and compassion. If man
had never fallen there would have been no opportunity of showing
divine mercy. But by permitting evil, mysterious as it seems,
God's works of grace, mercy, and wisdom in saving sinners have
been wonderfully manifested to all his creatures. The redeeming
of the church of elect sinners is the means of 'showing to
principalities and powers the manifold wisdom of God' (Eph.
3:10). Without the Fall we should have known nothing of the
Cross and the Gospel."
On the monuments of Egypt are found representations of a deity
in human form, piercing with a spear the head of a serpent. This
is regarded as an illustration of the wide dissemination of the
tradition of the Fall. The story of the "golden age," which
gives place to the "iron age", the age of purity and innocence,
which is followed by a time when man becomes a prey to sin and
misery, as represented in the mythology of Greece and Rome, has
also been regarded as a tradition of the Fall.
Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1 Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks").
This animal, called in Hebrew yahmur, from a word meaning "to
be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow-deer, the
Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over
Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its
pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard
the name as designating the bubale, Antelope bubale, the "wild
cow" of North Africa, which is about the size of a stag, like
the hartebeest of South Africa. A species of deer has been found
at Mount Carmel which is called yahmur by the Arabs. It is
said to be similar to the European roebuck.
The expression, "Break up your fallow ground" (Hos. 10:12; Jer.
4:3) means, "Do not sow your seed among thorns", i.e., break off
all your evil habits; clear your hearts of weeds, in order that
they may be prepared for the seed of righteousness. Land was
allowed to lie fallow that it might become more fruitful; but
when in this condition, it soon became overgrown with thorns and
weeds. The cultivator of the soil was careful to "break up" his
fallow ground, i.e., to clear the field of weeds, before sowing
seed in it. So says the prophet, "Break off your evil ways,
repent of your sins, cease to do evil, and then the good seed of
the word will have room to grow and bear fruit."
Sorcerers or necormancers, who professed to call up the dead to
answer questions, were said to have a "familiar spirit" (Deut.
18:11; 2 Kings 21:6; 2 Chr. 33:6; Lev. 19:31; 20:6; Isa. 8:19;
29:4). Such a person was called by the Hebrews an 'ob, which
properly means a leathern bottle; for sorcerers were regarded as
vessels containing the inspiring demon. This Hebrew word was
equivalent to the pytho of the Greeks, and was used to denote
both the person and the spirit which possessed him (Lev. 20:27;
1 Sam. 28:8; comp. Acts 16:16). The word "familiar" is from the
Latin familiaris, meaning a "household servant," and was
intended to express the idea that sorcerers had spirits as their
servants ready to obey their commands.
The first mentioned in Scripture was so grievous as to compel
Abraham to go down to the land of Egypt (Gen. 26:1). Another is
mentioned as having occurred in the days of Isaac, causing him
to go to Gerar (Gen. 26:1, 17). But the most remarkable of all
was that which arose in Egypt in the days of Joseph, which
lasted for seven years (Gen. 41-45).
Famines were sent as an effect of God's anger against a guilty
people (2 Kings 8:1, 2; Amos 8:11; Deut. 28:22-42; 2 Sam. 21:1;
2 Kings 6:25-28; 25:3; Jer. 14:15; 19:9; 42:17, etc.). A famine
was predicted by Agabus (Acts 11:28). Josephus makes mention of
the famine which occurred A.D. 45. Helena, queen of Adiabene,
being at Jerusalem at that time, procured corn from Alexandria
and figs from Cyprus for its poor inhabitants.
a winnowing shovel by which grain was thrown up against the wind
that it might be cleansed from broken straw and chaff (Isa.
30:24; Jer. 15:7; Matt. 3:12). (See AGRICULTURE.)
(Matt. 22:5). Every Hebrew had a certain portion of land
assigned to him as a possession (Num. 26:33-56). In Egypt the
lands all belonged to the king, and the husbandmen were obliged
to give him a fifth part of the produce; so in Palestine Jehovah
was the sole possessor of the soil, and the people held it by
direct tenure from him. By the enactment of Moses, the Hebrews
paid a tithe of the produce to Jehovah, which was assigned to
the priesthood. Military service when required was also to be
rendered by every Hebrew at his own expense. The occuptaion of a
husbandman was held in high honour (1 Sam. 11:5-7; 1 Kings
19:19; 2 Chr. 26:10). (See LAND LAWS ¯(n/a); TITHE.)
(1.) Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6. Greek assarion, i.e., a small as,
which was a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or
drachma, nearly equal to a halfpenny of our money.
(2.) Matt. 5:26; Mark 12:42 (Gr. kodrantes), the quadrant, the
fourth of an as, equal to two lepta, mites. The lepton (mite)
was the very smallest copper coin.
The sole fast required by the law of Moses was that of the great
Day of Atonement (q.v.), Lev. 23:26-32. It is called "the fast"
The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old
Testament is in Zech. 7:1-7; 8:19, from which it appears that
during their captivity the Jews observed four annual fasts.
(1.) The fast of the fourth month, kept on the seventeenth day
of Tammuz, the anniversary of the capture of Jerusalem by the
Chaldeans; to commemorate also the incident recorded Ex. 32:19.
(Comp. Jer. 52:6, 7.)
(2.) The fast of the fifth month, kept on the ninth of Ab
(comp. Num. 14:27), to commemorate the burning of the city and
temple (Jer. 52:12, 13).
(3.) The fast of the seventh month, kept on the third of Tisri
(comp. 2 Kings 25), the anniversary of the murder of Gedaliah
(Jer. 41:1, 2).
(4.) The fast of the tenth month (comp. Jer. 52:4; Ezek.
33:21; 2 Kings 25:1), to commemorate the beginning of the siege
of the holy city by Nebuchadnezzar.
There was in addition to these the fast appointed by Esther
Public national fasts on account of sin or to supplicate
divine favour were sometimes held.
(1.) 1 Sam. 7:6; (2.) 2 Chr.
20:3; (3.) Jer. 36:6-10; (4.) Neh. 9:1.
There were also local fasts.
(1.) Judg. 20:26; (2.) 2 Sam.
1:12; (3.) 1 Sam. 31:13; (4.) 1 Kings 21:9-12; (5.) Ezra
8:21-23: (6.) Jonah 3:5-9.
There are many instances of private occasional fasting (1 Sam.
1:7: 20:34; 2 Sam. 3:35; 12:16; 1 Kings 21:27; Ezra 10:6; Neh.
1:4; Dan. 10:2,3). Moses fasted forty days (Ex. 24:18; 34:28),
and so also did Elijah (1 Kings 19:8). Our Lord fasted forty
days in the wilderness (Matt. 4:2).
In the lapse of time the practice of fasting was lamentably
abused (Isa. 58:4; Jer. 14:12; Zech. 7:5). Our Lord rebuked the
Pharisees for their hypocritical pretences in fasting (Matt.
6:16). He himself appointed no fast. The early Christians,
however, observed the ordinary fasts according to the law of
their fathers (Acts 13:3; 14:23; 2 Cor. 6:5).
(Heb. heleb) denotes the richest part of the animal, or the
fattest of the flock, in the account of Abel's sacrifice (Gen.
4:4). It sometimes denotes the best of any production (Gen.
45:18; Num. 18:12; Ps. 81:16; 147:47). The fat of sacrifices was
to be burned (Lev. 3:9-11; 4:8; 7:3; 8:25; Num. 18:17. Comp. Ex.
29:13-22; Lev. 3:3-5).
It is used figuratively for a dull, stupid state of mind (Ps
In Joel 2:24 the word is equivalent to "vat," a vessel. The
hebrew word here thus rendered is elsewhere rendered "wine-fat"
and "press-fat" (Hag. 2:16; Isa. 63:2).
a name applied (1) to any ancestor (Deut. 1:11; 1 Kings 15:11;
Matt. 3:9; 23:30, etc.); and (2) as a title of respect to a
chief, ruler, or elder, etc. (Judg. 17:10; 18:19; 1 Sam. 10:12;
2 Kings 2:12; Matt. 23:9, etc.). (3) The author or beginner of
anything is also so called; e.g., Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:20,
21; comp. Job 38:28).
Applied to God (Ex. 4:22; Deut. 32:6; 2 Sam. 7:14; Ps. 89:27,
(1.) As denoting his covenant relation to the Jews
(Jer. 31:9; Isa. 63:16; 64:8; John 8:41, etc.).
(2.) Believers are called God's "sons" (John 1:12; Rom. 8:16;
Matt. 6:4, 8, 15, 18; 10:20, 29). They also call him "Father"
(Rom. 1:7; 1 Cor. 1:3; 2 Cor. 1:2; Gal. 1:4)
(Old A.S. faethm, "bosom," or the outstretched arms), a span of
six feet (Acts 27:28). Gr. orguia (from orego, "I stretch"), the
distance between the extremities of both arms fully stretched
(1.) A fatted animal for slaughter (2 Sam. 6:13; Isa. 11:6;
Ezek. 39:18. Comp. Matt. 22:4, where the word used in the
original, sitistos, means literally "corn-fed;" i.e., installed,
fat). (2.) Ps. 66:15 (Heb. meah, meaning "marrowy," "fat," a
species of sheep). (3.) 1 Sam. 15:9 (Heb. mishneh, meaning "the
second," and hence probably "cattle of a second quality," or
lambs of the second birth, i.e., autmnal lambs, and therfore of
Fear of the Lord the
is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety
(Prov. 1:7; Job 28:28; Ps. 19:9). It is a fear conjoined with
love and hope, and is therefore not a slavish dread, but rather
filial reverence. (Comp. Deut. 32:6; Hos. 11:1; Isa. 1:2; 63:16;
64:8.) God is called "the Fear of Isaac" (Gen. 31:42, 53), i.e.,
the God whom Isaac feared.
A holy fear is enjoined also in the New Testament as a
preventive of carelessness in religion, and as an incentive to
penitence (Matt. 10:28; 2 Cor. 5:11; 7:1; Phil. 2:12; Eph. 5:21;
Heb. 12:28, 29).
as a mark of hospitality (Gen. 19:3; 2 Sam. 3:20; 2 Kings 6:23);
on occasions of domestic joy (Luke 15:23; Gen. 21:8); on
birthdays (Gen. 40:20; Job 1:4; Matt. 14:6); and on the occasion
of a marriage (Judg. 14:10; Gen. 29:22).
Feasting was a part of the observances connected with the
offering up of sacrifices (Deut. 12:6, 7; 1 Sam. 9:19; 16:3, 5),
and with the annual festivals (Deut. 16:11). "It was one of the
designs of the greater solemnities, which required the
attendance of the people at the sacred tent, that the oneness of
the nation might be maintained and cemented together, by
statedly congregating in one place, and with one soul taking
part in the same religious services. But that oneness was
primarily and chiefly a religious and not merely a political
one; the people were not merely to meet as among themselves, but
with Jehovah, and to present themselves before him as one body;
the meeting was in its own nature a binding of themselves in
fellowship with Jehovah; so that it was not politics and
commerce that had here to do, but the soul of the Mosaic
dispensation, the foundation of the religious and political
existence of Israel, the covenant with Jehovah. To keep the
people's consciousness alive to this, to revive, strengthen, and
perpetuate it, nothing could be so well adapated as these annual
feasts." (See FESTIVALS.)
happy, the Roman procurator of Judea before whom Paul "reasoned"
(Acts 24:25). He appears to have expected a bribe from Paul, and
therefore had several interviews with him. The "worthy deeds"
referred to in 24:2 was his clearing the country of banditti and
At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was appointed
in the room of Felix (A.D. 60), who proceeded to Rome, and was
there accused of cruelty and malversation of office by the Jews
of Caesarea. The accusation was rendered nugatory by the
influence of his brother Pallas with Nero. (See Josephus, Ant.
xx. 8, 9.)
Drusilla, the daughter of Herod Agrippa, having been induced
by Felix to desert her husband, the king of Emesa, became his
adulterous companion. She was seated beside him when Paul
"reasoned" before the judge. When Felix gave place to Festus,
being "willing to do the Jews a pleasure," he left Paul bound.
(1.) With God, consisting in the knowledge of his will (Job
22:21; John 17:3); agreement with his designs (Amos 3:2); mutual
affection (Rom. 8: 38, 39); enjoyment of his presence (Ps. 4:6);
conformity to his image (1 John 2:6; 1:6); and participation of
his felicity (1 John 1:3, 4; Eph. 3:14-21).
(2.) Of saints with one another, in duties (Rom. 12:5; 1 Cor.
12:1; 1 Thess. 5:17, 18); in ordinances (Heb. 10:25; Acts 2:46);
in grace, love, joy, etc. (Mal. 3:16; 2 Cor. 8:4); mutual
interest, spiritual and temporal (Rom. 12:4, 13; Heb. 13:16); in
sufferings (Rom. 15:1, 2; Gal. 6:1, 2; Rom. 12:15; and in glory
(Heb. gader), Num. 22:24 (R.V.). Fences were constructions of
unmortared stones, to protect gardens, vineyards, sheepfolds,
etc. From various causes they were apt to bulge out and fall
(Ps. 62:3). In Ps. 80:12, R.V. (see Isa. 5:5), the psalmist
says, "Why hast thou broken down her fences?" Serpents delight
to lurk in the crevices of such fences (Eccl. 10:8; comp. Amos
There were in Palestine (1) cities, (2) unwalled villages, and
(3) villages with castles or towers (1 Chr. 27:25). Cities, so
called, had walls, and were thus fenced. The fortifications
consisted of one or two walls, on which were towers or parapets
at regular intervals (2 Chr. 32:5; Jer. 31:38). Around ancient
Jerusalem were three walls, on one of which were ninety towers,
on the second fourteen, and on the third sixty. The tower of
Hananeel, near the north-east corner of the city wall, is
frequently referred to (Neh. 3:1; 12:39; Zech. 14:10). The
gateways of such cities were also fortified (Neh. 2:8; 3:3, 6;
Judg. 16:2, 3; 1 Sam. 23:7).
The Hebrews found many fenced cities when they entered the
Promised Land (Num. 13:28; 32:17, 34-42; Josh. 11:12, 13; Judg.
1:27-33), and we may estimate the strength of some of these
cities from the fact that they were long held in possession by
the Canaanites. The Jebusites, e.g., were enabled to hold
possession of Jerusalem till the time of David (2 Sam. 5:6, 7; 1
Several of the kings of Israel and Judah distinguished
themselves as fortifiers or "builders" of cities.
Lev. 11:30 (R.V., "gecko"), one of the unclean creeping things.
It was perhaps the Lacerta gecko which was intended by the
Hebrew word (anakah, a cry, "mourning," the creature which
groans) here used, i.e., the "fan-footed" lizard, the gecko
which makes a mournful wail. The LXX. translate it by a word
meaning "shrew-mouse," of which there are three species in
Palestine. The Rabbinical writers regard it as the hedgehog. The
translation of the Revised Version is to be preferred.
(2 Sam. 19:18), some kind of boat for crossing the river which
the men of Judah placed at the service of the king. Floats or
rafts for this purpose were in use from remote times (Isa.
There were daily (Lev. 23), weekly, monthly, and yearly
festivals, and great stress was laid on the regular observance
of them in every particular (Num. 28:1-8; Ex. 29:38-42; Lev.
6:8-23; Ex. 30:7-9; 27:20).
(1.) The septenary festivals were,
(a) The weekly Sabbath (Lev. 23:1-3; Ex. 19:3-30; 20:8-11;
(b) The seventh new moon, or the feast of Trumpets (Num.
(c) The Sabbatical year (Ex. 23:10, 11; Lev. 25:2-7).
(d) The year of jubilee (Lev. 23-35; 25: 8-16; 27:16-25).
(2.) The great feasts were,
(a) The Passover. (b) The feast of Pentecost, or of weeks. (c)
The feast of Tabernacles, or of ingathering.
On each of these occasions every male Israelite was commanded
"to appear before the Lord" (Deut. 27:7; Neh. 8:9-12). The
attendance of women was voluntary. (Comp. Luke 2:41; 1 Sam. 1:7;
2:19.) The promise that God would protect their homes (Ex.
34:23, 24) while all the males were absent in Jerusalem at these
feasts was always fulfilled. "During the whole period between
Moses and Christ we never read of an enemy invading the land at
the time of the three festivals. The first instance on record is
thirty-three years after they had withdrawn from themselves the
divine protection by imbruing their hands in the Saviour's
blood, when Cestius, the Roman general, slew fifty of the people
of Lydda while all the rest had gone up to the feast of
Tabernacles, A.D. 66."
These festivals, besides their religious purpose, had an
important bearing on the maintenance among the people of the
feeling of a national unity. The times fixed for their
observance were arranged so as to interfere as little as
possible with the industry of the people. The Passover was kept
just before the harvest commenced, Pentecost at the conclusion
of the corn harvest and before the vintage, the feast of
Tabernacles after all the fruits of the ground had been gathered
(3.) The Day of Atonement, the tenth day of the seventh month
(Lev. 16:1, 34; 23:26-32; Num. 29:7-11). (See ATONEMENT, DAY OF.)
Of the post-Exilian festivals reference is made to the feast
of Dedication (John 10:22). This feast was appointed by Judas
Maccabaeus in commemoration of the purification of the temple
after it had been polluted by Antiochus Epiphanes. The "feast of
Purim" (q.v.), Esther 9:24-32, was also instituted after the
Exile. (Cf. John 5:1.)
the successor of Felix (A.D. 60) as procurator of Judea (Acts
24:27). A few weeks after he had entered on his office the case
of Paul, then a prisoner at Caesarea, was reported to him. The
"next day," after he had gone down to Caesarea, he heard Paul
defend himself in the presence of Herod Agrippa II. and his
sister Bernice, and not finding in him anything worthy of death
or of bonds, would have set him free had he not appealed unto
Caesar (Acts 25:11, 12). In consequence of this appeal Paul was
sent to Rome. Festus, after being in office less than two years,
died in Judea. (See AGRIPPA.)
(Deut. 28:22; Matt. 8:14; Mark 1:30; John 4:52; Acts 28:8), a
burning heat, as the word so rendered denotes, which attends all
febrile attacks. In all Eastern countries such diseases are very
common. Peter's wife's mother is said to have suffered from a
"great fever" (Luke 4:38), an instance of Luke's professional
exactitude in describing disease. He adopts here the technical
medical distinction, as in those times fevers were divided into
the "great" and the "less."
(Heb. sadeh), a cultivated field, but unenclosed. It is applied
to any cultivated ground or pasture (Gen. 29:2; 31:4; 34:7), or
tillage (Gen. 37:7; 47:24). It is also applied to woodland (Ps.
132:6) or mountain top (Judg. 9:32, 36; 2 Sam. 1:21). It denotes
sometimes a cultivated region as opposed to the wilderness (Gen.
33:19; 36:35). Unwalled villages or scattered houses are spoken
of as "in the fields" (Deut. 28:3, 16; Lev. 25:31; Mark 6:36,
56). The "open field" is a place remote from a house (Gen. 4:8;
Lev. 14:7, 53; 17:5). Cultivated land of any extent was called a
field (Gen. 23:13, 17; 41:8; Lev. 27:16; Ruth 4:5; Neh. 12:29).
First mentioned in Gen. 3:7. The fig-tree is mentioned (Deut.
8:8) as one of the valuable products of Palestine. It was a sign
of peace and prosperity (1 Kings 4:25; Micah 4:4; Zech. 3:10).
Figs were used medicinally (2 Kings 20:7), and pressed together
and formed into "cakes" as articles of diet (1 Sam. 30:12; Jer.
Our Lord's cursing the fig-tree near Bethany (Mark 11:13) has
occasioned much perplexity from the circumstance, as mentioned
by the evangelist, that "the time of figs was not yet." The
explanation of the words, however, lies in the simple fact that
the fruit of the fig-tree appears before the leaves, and hence
that if the tree produced leaves it ought also to have had
fruit. It ought to have had fruit if it had been true to its
"pretensions," in showing its leaves at this particular season.
"This tree, so to speak, vaunted itself to be in advance of all
the other trees, challenged the passer-by that he should come
and refresh himself with its fruit. Yet when the Lord accepted
its challenge and drew near, it proved to be but as the others,
without fruit as they; for indeed, as the evangelist observes,
the time of figs had not yet arrived. Its fault, if one may use
the word, lay in its pretensions, in its making a show to run
before the rest when it did not so indeed" (Trench, Miracles).
The fig-tree of Palestine (Ficus carica) produces two and
sometimes three crops of figs in a year, (1) the bikkurah, or
"early-ripe fig" (Micah 7:1; Isa. 28:4; Hos. 9:10, R.V.), which
is ripe about the end of June, dropping off as soon as it is
ripe (Nah. 3:12); (2) the kermus, or "summer fig," then begins
to be formed, and is ripe about August; and (3) the pag (plural
"green figs," Cant. 2:13; Gr. olynthos, Rev. 6:13, "the untimely
fig"), or "winter fig," which ripens in sheltered spots in
Heb. hashukum, plur., joinings (Ex. 27:17; 38:17, 28), the rods
by which the tops of the columns around the tabernacle court
were joined together, and from which the curtains were suspended
(Ex. 27:10, 11; 36:38).
In Jer. 52:21 the rendering of a different word, hut,
meaning a "thread," and designating a measuring-line of 12
cubits in length for the circumference of the copper pillars of
a worker in silver and gold (Prov. 25:4). In Judg. 17:4 the word
(tsoreph) is rendered "founder," and in Isa. 41:7 "goldsmith."
a crucible, melting-pot (Prov. 17:3; 27:21).
the uniform rendering in the Authorized Version (marg. R.V.,
"cypress") of berosh (2 Sam. 6:5; 1 Kings 5:8, 10; 6:15, 34;
9:11, etc.), a lofty tree (Isa. 55:13) growing on Lebanon
(37:24). Its wood was used in making musical instruments and
doors of houses, and for ceilings (2 Chr. 3:5), the decks of
ships (Ezek. 27:5), floorings and spear-shafts (Nah. 2:3, R.V.).
The true fir (abies) is not found in Palestine, but the pine
tree, of which there are four species, is common.
The precise kind of tree meant by the "green fir tree" (Hos.
14:8) is uncertain. Some regard it as the sherbin tree, a
cypress resembling the cedar; others, the Aleppo or maritime
pine (Pinus halepensis), which resembles the Scotch fir; while
others think that the "stone-pine" (Pinus pinea) is probably
meant. (See PINE.)
(1.) For sacred purposes. The sacrifices were consumed by fire
(Gen. 8:20). The ever-burning fire on the altar was first
kindled from heaven (Lev. 6:9, 13; 9:24), and afterwards
rekindled at the dedication of Solomon's temple (2 Chr. 7:1, 3).
The expressions "fire from heaven" and "fire of the Lord"
generally denote lightning, but sometimes also the fire of the
altar was so called (Ex. 29:18; Lev. 1:9; 2:3; 3:5, 9).
Fire for a sacred purpose obtained otherwise than from the
altar was called "strange fire" (Lev. 10:1, 2; Num. 3:4).
The victims slain for sin offerings were afterwards consumed
by fire outside the camp (Lev. 4:12, 21; 6:30; 16:27; Heb.
(2.) For domestic purposes, such as baking, cooking, warmth,
etc. (Jer. 36:22; Mark 14:54; John 18:18). But on Sabbath no
fire for any domestic purpose was to be kindled (Ex. 35:3; Num.
(3.) Punishment of death by fire was inflicted on such as were
guilty of certain forms of unchastity and incest (Lev. 20:14;
21:9). The burning of captives in war was not unknown among the
Jews (2 Sam. 12:31; Jer. 29:22). The bodies of infamous persons
who were executed were also sometimes burned (Josh. 7:25; 2
(4.) In war, fire was used in the destruction of cities, as
Jericho (Josh. 6:24), Ai (8:19), Hazor (11:11), Laish (Judg.
18:27), etc. The war-chariots of the Canaanites were burnt
(Josh. 11:6, 9, 13). The Israelites burned the images (2 Kings
10:26; R.V., "pillars") of the house of Baal. These objects of
worship seem to have been of the nature of obelisks, and were
sometimes evidently made of wood.
Torches were sometimes carried by the soldiers in battle
(5.) Figuratively, fire is a symbol of Jehovah's presence and
the instrument of his power (Ex. 14:19; Num. 11:1, 3; Judg.
13:20; 1 Kings 18:38; 2 Kings 1:10, 12; 2:11; Isa. 6:4; Ezek.
1:4; Rev. 1:14, etc.).
God's word is also likened unto fire (Jer. 23:29). It is
referred to as an emblem of severe trials or misfortunes (Zech.
12:6; Luke 12:49; 1 Cor. 3:13, 15; 1 Pet. 1:7), and of eternal
punishment (Matt. 5:22; Mark 9:44; Rev. 14:10; 21:8).
The influence of the Holy Ghost is likened unto fire (Matt.
3:11). His descent was denoted by the appearance of tongues as
of fire (Acts 2:3).
Isa. 7:4, Amos 4:11, Zech. 3:2, denotes the burnt end of a stick
(Heb. 'ud); in Judg. 15:4, a lamp or torch, a flambeau (Heb.
lappid); in Prov. 26:18 (comp. Eph. 6:16), burning darts or
arrows (Heb. zikkim).
(Ex. 27:3; 38:3), one of the vessels of the temple service
(rendered "snuff-dish" Ex. 25:38; 37:23; and "censer" Lev. 10:1;
16:12). It was probably a metallic cinder-basin used for the
purpose of carrying live coal for burning incense, and of
carrying away the snuff in trimming the lamps.
Used only in John 2:6; the Attic amphora, equivalent to the
Hebrew bath (q.v.), a measure for liquids containing about 8 7/8
from the Vulgate firmamentum, which is used as the translation
of the Hebrew raki'a. This word means simply "expansion." It
denotes the space or expanse like an arch appearing immediately
above us. They who rendered raki'a by firmamentum regarded it
as a solid body. The language of Scripture is not scientific but
popular, and hence we read of the sun rising and setting, and
also here the use of this particular word. It is plain that it
was used to denote solidity as well as expansion. It formed a
division between the waters above and the waters below (Gen.
1:7). The raki'a supported the upper reservoir (Ps. 148:4). It
was the support also of the heavenly bodies (Gen. 1:14), and is
spoken of as having "windows" and "doors" (Gen. 7:11; Isa.
24:18; Mal. 3:10) through which the rain and snow might descend.
sons enjoyed certain special privileges (Deut. 21:17; Gen.
25:23, 31, 34; 49:3; 1 Chr. 5:1; Heb. 12:16; Ps. 89:27). (See BIRTHRIGHT.)
The "first-born of the poor" signifies the most miserable of
the poor (Isa. 14:30). The "church of the first-born" signifies
the church of the redeemed.
The destruction of the first-born was the last of the ten
plagues inflicted on the Egyptians (Ex. 11:1-8; 12:29, 30).
Menephtah is probably the Pharaoh whose first-born was slain.
His son did not succeed or survive his father, but died early.
The son's tomb has been found at Thebes unfinished, showing it
was needed earlier than was expected. Some of the records on the
tomb are as follows: "The son whom Menephtah loves; who draws
towards him his father's heart, the singer, the prince of
archers, who governed Egypt on behalf of his father. Dead."
First-born, Redemption of
From the beginning the office of the priesthood in each family
belonged to the eldest son. But when the extensive plan of
sacrificial worship was introduced, requiring a company of men
to be exclusively devoted to this ministry, the primitive office
of the first-born was superseded by that of the Levites (Num.
3:11-13), and it was ordained that the first-born of man and of
unclean animals should henceforth be redeemed (18:15).
The laws concerning this redemption of the first-born of man
are recorded in Ex. 13:12-15; 22:29; 34:20; Num. 3:45; 8:17;
18:16; Lev. 12:2, 4.
The first-born male of every clean animal was to be given up
to the priest for sacrifice (Deut. 12:6; Ex. 13:12; 34:20; Num.
But the first-born of unclean animals was either to be
redeemed or sold and the price given to the priest (Lev.
27:11-13, 27). The first-born of an ass, if not redeemed, was to
be put to death (Ex. 13:13; 34:20).
First-born, Sanctification of the
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man
and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and
of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest
(Ex. 19:22, 24), representing the family to which he belonged,
and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4).
The first-fruits of the ground were offered unto God just as the
first-born of man and animals.
The law required,
(1.) That on the morrow after the Passover
Sabbath a sheaf of new corn should be waved by the priest before
the altar (Lev. 23:5, 6, 10, 12; 2:12).
(2.) That at the feast of Pentecost two loaves of leavened
bread, made from the new flour, were to be waved in like manner
(Lev. 23:15, 17; Num. 28:26).
(3.) The feast of Tabernacles was an acknowledgement that the
fruits of the harvest were from the Lord (Ex. 23:16; 34:22).
(4.) Every individual, besides, was required to consecrate to
God a portion of the first-fruits of the land (Ex. 22:29; 23:19;
34:26; Num. 15:20, 21).
(5.) The law enjoined that no fruit was to be gathered from
newly-planted fruit-trees for the first three years, and that
the first-fruits of the fourth year were to be consecrated to
the Lord (Lev. 19:23-25). Jeremiah (2:3) alludes to the
ordinance of "first-fruits," and hence he must have been
acquainted with the books of Exodus, Leviticus, and Numbers,
where the laws regarding it are recorded.
called dag by the Hebrews, a word denoting great fecundity
(Gen. 9:2; Num. 11:22; Jonah 2:1, 10). No fish is mentioned by
name either in the Old or in the New Testament. Fish abounded in
the Mediterranean and in the lakes of the Jordan, so that the
Hebrews were no doubt acquainted with many species. Two of the
villages on the shores of the Sea of Galilee derived their names
from their fisheries, Bethsaida (the "house of fish") on the
east and on the west. There is probably no other sheet of water
in the world of equal dimensions that contains such a variety
and profusion of fish. About thirty-seven different kinds have
been found. Some of the fishes are of a European type, such as
the roach, the barbel, and the blenny; others are markedly
African and tropical, such as the eel-like silurus. There was a
regular fish-market apparently in Jerusalem (2 Chr. 33:14; Neh.
3:3; 12:39; Zeph. 1:10), as there was a fish-gate which was
probably contiguous to it.
Sidon is the oldest fishing establishment known in history.
Besides its literal sense (Luke 5:2), this word is also applied
by our Lord to his disciples in a figurative sense (Matt. 4:19;
were used for catching fish (Amos 4:2; comp. Isa. 37:29; Jer.
16:16; Ezek. 29:4; Job. 41:1, 2; Matt. 17:27).
Fishing, the art of
was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine.
It was from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples
(Mark 1:16-20), and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the
winds and the waves (Matt. 8:26) and delivered that remarkable
series of prophecies recorded in Matt. 13. He twice miraculously
fed multitudes with fish and bread (Matt. 14:19; 15:36). It was
in the mouth of a fish that the tribute-money was found (Matt.
17:27). And he "ate a piece of broiled fish" with his disciples
after his resurrection (Luke 24:42, 43; comp. Acts 1:3). At the
Sea of Tiberias (John 21:1-14), in obedience to his direction,
the disciples cast their net "on the right side of the ship,"
and enclosed so many that "they were not able to draw it for the
multitude of fishes."
Two kinds of fishing-nets are mentioned in the New Testament:
(1.) The casting-net (Matt. 4:18; Mark 1:16).
(2.) The drag-net or seine (Matt. 13:48).
Fish were also caught by the fishing-hook (Matt. 17:27). (See NET.)
(Cant. 7:4) should be simply "pools," as in the Revised Version.
The reservoirs near Heshbon (q.v.) were probably stocked with
fish (2 Sam. 2:13; 4:12; Isa. 7:3; 22:9, 11).
(Isa. 28:25, 27), the rendering of the Hebrew ketsah, "without
doubt the Nigella sativa, a small annual of the order
Ranunculacece, which grows wild in the Mediterranean countries,
and is cultivated in Egypt and Syria for its seed." It is
rendered in margin of the Revised Version "black cummin." The
seeds are used as a condiment.
In Ezek. 4:9 this word is the rendering of the Hebrew
kussemeth (incorrectly rendered "rye" in the Authorized
Version of Ex. 9:32 and Isa. 28:25, but "spelt" in the Revised
Version). The reading "fitches" here is an error; it should be
(Heb., or rather Egyptian, ahu, Job 8:11), rendered "meadow" in
Gen. 41:2, 18; probably the Cyperus esculentus, a species of
rush eaten by cattle, the Nile reed. It also grows in Palestine.
In Ex. 2:3, 5, Isa. 19:6, it is the rendering of the Hebrew
suph_, a word which occurs frequently in connection with _yam;
as yam suph, to denote the "Red Sea" (q.v.) or the sea of
weeds (as this word is rendered, Jonah 2:5). It denotes some
kind of sedge or reed which grows in marshy places. (See PAPER, REED.)
Heb. ashishah, (2 Sam. 6:19; 1 Chr. 16:3; Cant. 2:5; Hos. 3:1),
meaning properly "a cake of pressed raisins." "Flagons of wine"
of the Authorized Version should be, as in the Revised Version,
"cakes of raisins" in all these passages. In Isa. 22:24 it is
the rendering of the Hebrew nebel, which properly means a
bottle or vessel of skin. (Comp. 1 Sam. 1:24; 10:3; 25:18; 2
Sam. 16:1, where the same Hebrew word is used.)
Flame of fire
is the chosen symbol of the holiness of God (Ex. 3:2; Rev.
2:18), as indicating "the intense, all-consuming operation of
his holiness in relation to sin."
(Heb. pishtah, i.e., "peeled", in allusion to the fact that the
stalks of flax when dried were first split or peeled before
being steeped in water for the purpose of destroying the pulp).
This plant was cultivated from earliest times. The flax of Egypt
was destroyed by the plague of hail when it "was bolled", i.e.,
was forming pods for seed (Ex. 9:31). It was extensively
cultivated both in Egypt and Palestine. Reference is made in
Josh. 2:6 to the custom of drying flax-stalks by exposing them
to the sun on the flat roofs of houses. It was much used in
forming articles of clothing such as girdles, also cords and
bands (Lev. 13:48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11). (See LINEN.)
David at the cave of Adullam thus addressed his persecutor Saul
(1 Sam. 24:14): "After whom is the king of Israel come out?
after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea?" He
thus speaks of himself as the poor, contemptible object of the
monarch's pursuit, a "worthy object truly for an expedition of
the king of Israel with his picked troops!" This insect is in
Eastern language the popular emblem of insignificance. In 1 Sam.
26:20 the LXX. read "come out to seek my life" instead of "to
seek a flea."
the wool of a sheep, whether shorn off or still attached to the
skin (Deut. 18:4; Job 31:20). The miracle of Gideon's fleece
(Judg. 6:37-40) consisted in the dew having fallen at one time
on the fleece without any on the floor, and at another time in
the fleece remaining dry while the ground was wet with dew.
in the Old Testament denotes (1) a particular part of the body
of man and animals (Gen. 2:21; 41:2; Ps. 102:5, marg.); (2) the
whole body (Ps. 16:9); (3) all living things having flesh, and
particularly humanity as a whole (Gen. 6:12, 13); (4) mutability
and weakness (2 Chr. 32:8; comp. Isa. 31:3; Ps. 78:39). As
suggesting the idea of softness it is used in the expression
"heart of flesh" (Ezek. 11:19). The expression "my flesh and
bone" (Judg. 9:2; Isa. 58:7) denotes relationship.
In the New Testament, besides these it is also used to denote
the sinful element of human nature as opposed to the "Spirit"
(Rom. 6:19; Matt. 16:17). Being "in the flesh" means being
unrenewed (Rom. 7:5; 8:8, 9), and to live "according to the
flesh" is to live and act sinfully (Rom. 8:4, 5, 7, 12).
This word also denotes the human nature of Christ (John 1:14,
"The Word was made flesh." Comp. also 1 Tim. 3:16; Rom. 1:3).
a many-pronged fork used in the sacrificial services (1 Sam.
2:13, 14; Ex. 27:3; 38:3) by the priest in drawing away the
flesh. The fat of the sacrifice, together with the breast and
shoulder (Lev. 7:29-34), were presented by the worshipper to the
priest. The fat was burned on the alter (3:3-5), and the breast
and shoulder became the portion of the priests. But Hophni and
Phinehas, not content with this, sent a servant to seize with a
flesh-hook a further portion.
abounds in all the plains and valleys of the wilderness of the
forty years' wanderings. In Isa. 50:7 and Ezek. 3:9 the
expressions, where the word is used, means that the "Messiah
would be firm and resolute amidst all contempt and scorn which
he would meet; that he had made up his mind to endure it, and
would not shrink from any kind or degree of suffering which
would be necessary to accomplish the great work in which he was
engaged." (Comp. Ezek. 3:8, 9.) The words "like a flint" are
used with reference to the hoofs of horses (Isa. 5:28).
an event recorded in Gen. 7 and 8. (See DELUGE.) In
Josh. 24:2, 3, 14, 15, the word "flood" (R.V., "river") means
the river Euphrates. In Ps. 66:6, this word refers to the river
Grain reduced to the form of meal is spoken of in the time of
Abraham (Gen. 18:6). As baking was a daily necessity, grain was
also ground daily at the mills (Jer. 25:10). The flour mingled
with water was kneaded in kneading-troughs, and sometimes leaven
(Ex. 12:34) was added and sometimes omitted (Gen. 19:3). The
dough was then formed into thin cakes nine or ten inches in
diameter and baked in the oven.
Fine flour was offered by the poor as a sin-offering (Lev.
5:11-13), and also in connection with other sacrifices (Num.
Very few species of flowers are mentioned in the Bible although
they abounded in Palestine. It has been calculated that in
Western Syria and Palestine from two thousand to two thousand
five hundred plants are found, of which about five hundred
probably are British wild-flowers. Their beauty is often alluded
to (Cant. 2:12; Matt. 6:28). They are referred to as affording
an emblem of the transitory nature of human life (Job 14:2; Ps.
103:15; Isa. 28:1; 40:6; James 1:10). Gardens containing flowers
and fragrant herbs are spoken of (Cant. 4:16; 6:2).
a musical instrument, probably composed of a number of pipes,
mentioned Dan. 3:5, 7, 10, 15.
In Matt. 9:23, 24, notice is taken of players on the flute,
here called "minstrels" (but in R.V. "flute-players").
Flutes were in common use among the ancient Egyptians.
Heb. zebub, (Eccl. 10:1; Isa. 7:18). This fly was so grievous a
pest that the Phoenicians invoked against it the aid of their
god Baal-zebub (q.v.). The prophet Isaiah (7:18) alludes to some
poisonous fly which was believed to be found on the confines of
Egypt, and which would be called by the Lord. Poisonous flies
exist in many parts of Africa, for instance, the different kinds
Heb. 'arob, the name given to the insects sent as a plague on
the land of Egypt (Ex. 8:21-31; Ps. 78:45; 105:31). The LXX.
render this by a word which means the "dog-fly," the cynomuia.
The Jewish commentators regarded the Hebrew word here as
connected with the word 'arab, which means "mingled;" and they
accordingly supposed the plague to consist of a mixed multitude
of animals, beasts, reptiles, and insects. But there is no doubt
that "the 'arab" denotes a single definite species. Some
interpreters regard it as the Blatta orientalis, the cockroach,
a species of beetle. These insects "inflict very painful bites
with their jaws; gnaw and destroy clothes, household furniture,
leather, and articles of every kind, and either consume or
render unavailable all eatables."
(Hos. 10:7), the rendering of ketseph, which properly means
twigs or splinters (as rendered in the LXX. and marg. R.V.). The
expression in Hosea may therefore be read, "as a chip on the
face of the water," denoting the helplessness of the piece of
wood as compared with the irresistable current.
Heb. belil, (Job 6:5), meaning properly a mixture or medley
(Lat. farrago), "made up of various kinds of grain, as wheat,
barley, vetches, and the like, all mixed together, and then sown
or given to cattle" (Job 24:6, A.V. "corn," R.V. "provender;"
Isa. 30:24, provender").
an enclosure for flocks to rest together (Isa. 13:20).
Sheep-folds are mentioned Num. 32:16, 24, 36; 2 Sam. 7:8; Zeph.
2:6; John 10:1, etc. It was prophesied of the cities of Ammon
(Ezek. 25:5), Aroer (Isa. 17:2), and Judaea, that they would be
folds or couching-places for flocks. "Among the pots," of the
Authorized Version (Ps. 68:13), is rightly in the Revised
Version, "among the sheepfolds."
Originally the Creator granted the use of the vegetable world
for food to man (Gen. 1:29), with the exception mentioned
(2:17). The use of animal food was probably not unknown to the
antediluvians. There is, however, a distinct law on the subject
given to Noah after the Deluge (Gen. 9:2-5). Various articles of
food used in the patriarchal age are mentioned in Gen. 18:6-8;
25:34; 27:3, 4; 43:11. Regarding the food of the Israelites in
Egypt, see Ex. 16:3; Num. 11:5. In the wilderness their ordinary
food was miraculously supplied in the manna. They had also
quails (Ex. 16:11-13; Num. 11:31).
In the law of Moses there are special regulations as to the
animals to be used for food (Lev. 11; Deut. 14:3-21). The Jews
were also forbidden to use as food anything that had been
consecrated to idols (Ex. 34:15), or animals that had died of
disease or had been torn by wild beasts (Ex. 22:31; Lev. 22:8).
(See also for other restrictions Ex. 23:19; 29:13-22; Lev.
3:4-9; 9:18, 19; 22:8; Deut. 14:21.) But beyond these
restrictions they had a large grant from God (Deut. 14:26;
Food was prepared for use in various ways. The cereals were
sometimes eaten without any preparation (Lev. 23:14; Deut.
23:25; 2 Kings 4:42). Vegetables were cooked by boiling (Gen.
25:30, 34; 2 Kings 4:38, 39), and thus also other articles of
food were prepared for use (Gen. 27:4; Prov. 23:3; Ezek. 24:10;
Luke 24:42; John 21:9). Food was also prepared by roasting (Ex.
12:8; Lev. 2:14). (See COOK.)
connected with a throne (2 Chr. 9:18). Jehovah symbolically
dwelt in the holy place between the cherubim above the ark of
the covenant. The ark was his footstool (1 Chr. 28:2; Ps. 99:5;
132:7). And as heaven is God's throne, so the earth is his
footstool (Ps. 110:1; Isa. 66:1; Matt. 5:35).
of the Gentiles (Isa. 60:5, 11; R.V., "the wealth of the
nations") denotes the wealth of the heathen. The whole passage
means that the wealth of the Gentile world should be consecrated
to the service of the church.
Mention is frequently made of the fords of the Jordan (Josh.
2:7; Judg. 3:28; 12:5, 6), which must have been very numerous;
about fifty perhaps. The most notable was that of Bethabara.
Mention is also made of the ford of the Jabbok (Gen. 32:22), and
of the fords of Arnon (Isa. 16:2) and of the Euphrates (Jer.
The practice common among Oriental nations of colouring the
forehead or impressing on it some distinctive mark as a sign of
devotion to some deity is alluded to in Rev. 13:16, 17; 14:9;
The "jewel on thy forehead" mentioned in Ezek. 16:12 (R.V., "a
ring upon thy nose") was in all probability the "nose-ring"
In Ezek. 3:7 the word "impudent" is rightly rendered in the
Revised Version "an hard forehead." (See also ver. 8, 9.)
a Gentile. Such as resided among the Hebrews were required by
the law to be treated with kindness (Ex. 22:21; 23:9; Lev.
19:33, 34; 23:22; Deut. 14:28; 16:10, 11; 24:19). They enjoyed
in many things equal rights with the native-born residents (Ex.
12:49; Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15; 35:15), but were not allowed to
do anything which was an abomination according to the Jewish law
(Ex. 20:10; Lev. 17:15,16; 18:26; 20:2; 24:16, etc.).
Foreknowledge of God
Acts 2:23; Rom. 8:29; 11:2; 1 Pet. 1:2), one of those high
attributes essentially appertaining to him the full import of
which we cannot comprehend. In the most absolute sense his
knowledge is infinite (1 Sam. 23:9-13; Jer. 38:17-23; 42:9-22,
Matt. 11:21, 23; Acts 15:18).
John the Baptist went before our Lord in this character (Mark
1:2, 3). Christ so called (Heb. 6:20) as entering before his
people into the holy place as their head and guide.
Heb. ya'ar, meaning a dense wood, from its luxuriance. Thus all
the great primeval forests of Syria (Eccl. 2:6; Isa. 44:14; Jer.
5:6; Micah 5:8). The most extensive was the trans-Jordanic
forest of Ephraim (2 Sam. 18:6, 8; Josh. 17:15, 18), which is
probably the same as the wood of Ephratah (Ps. 132:6), some part
of the great forest of Gilead. It was in this forest that
Absalom was slain by Joab. David withdrew to the forest of
Hareth in the mountains of Judah to avoid the fury of Saul (1
Sam. 22:5). We read also of the forest of Bethel (2 Kings 2:23,
24), and of that which the Israelites passed in their pursuit of
the Philistines (1 Sam. 14:25), and of the forest of the cedars
of Lebanon (1 Kings 4:33; 2 Kings 19:23; Hos. 14:5, 6).
"The house of the forest of Lebanon (1 Kings 7:2; 10:17; 2
Chr. 9:16) was probably Solomon's armoury, and was so called
because the wood of its many pillars came from Lebanon, and they
had the appearance of a forest. (See BAALBEC.)
Heb. horesh, denoting a thicket of trees, underwood, jungle,
bushes, or trees entangled, and therefore affording a safe
hiding-place. place. This word is rendered "forest" only in 2
Chr. 27:4. It is also rendered "wood", the "wood" in the
"wilderness of Ziph," in which david concealed himself (1 Sam.
23:15), which lay south-east of Hebron. In Isa. 17:19 this word
is in Authorized Version rendered incorrectly "bough."
Heb. pardes, meaning an enclosed garden or plantation. Asaph
is (Neh. 2:8) called the "keeper of the king's forest." The same
Hebrew word is used Eccl. 2:5, where it is rendered in the
plural "orchards" (R.V., "parks"), and Cant. 4: 13, rendered
"orchard" (R.V. marg., "a paradise").
"The forest of the vintage" (Zech. 11:2, "inaccessible
forest," or R.V. "strong forest") is probably a figurative
allusion to Jerusalem, or the verse may simply point to the
devastation of the region referred to.
The forest is an image of unfruitfulness as contrasted with a
cultivated field (Isa. 29:17; 32:15; Jer. 26:18; Hos. 2:12).
Isaiah (10:19, 33, 34) likens the Assyrian host under
Sennacherib (q.v.) to the trees of some huge forest, to be
suddenly cut down by an unseen stroke.
Forgiveness of sin
one of the constituent parts of justification. In pardoning sin,
God absolves the sinner from the condemnation of the law, and
that on account of the work of Christ, i.e., he removes the
guilt of sin, or the sinner's actual liability to eternal wrath
on account of it. All sins are forgiven freely (Acts 5:31;
13:38; 1 John 1:6-9). The sinner is by this act of grace for
ever freed from the guilt and penalty of his sins. This is the
peculiar prerogative of God (Ps. 130:4; Mark 2:5). It is offered
to all in the gospel. (See JUSTIFICATION.)
in every form of it was sternly condemned by the Mosaic law
(Lev. 21:9; 19:29; Deut. 22:20, 21, 23-29; 23:18; Ex. 22:16).
But this word is more frequently used in a symbolical than in
its ordinary sense. It frequently means a forsaking of God or a
following after idols (Isa. 1:2; Jer. 2:20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 1:2;
2:1-5; Jer. 3:8,9).
fortunate, a disciple of Corinth who visited Paul at Ephesus,
and returned with Stephanas and Achaicus, the bearers of the
apostle's first letter to the Corinthians (1 Cor. 16:17).
(Heb. 'ain; i.e., "eye" of the water desert), a natural source
of living water. Palestine was a "land of brooks of water, of
fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills"
(Deut. 8:7; 11:11).
These fountains, bright sparkling "eyes" of the desert, are
remarkable for their abundance and their beauty, especially on
the west of Jordan. All the perennial rivers and streams of the
country are supplied from fountains, and depend comparatively
little on surface water. "Palestine is a country of mountains
and hills, and it abounds in fountains of water. The murmur of
these waters is heard in every dell, and the luxuriant foliage
which surrounds them is seen in every plain." Besides its
rain-water, its cisterns and fountains, Jerusalem had also an
abundant supply of water in the magnificent reservoir called
"Solomon's Pools" (q.v.), at the head of the Urtas valley,
whence it was conveyed to the city by subterrean channels some
10 miles in length. These have all been long ago destroyed, so
that no water from the "Pools" now reaches Jerusalem. Only one
fountain has been discovered at Jerusalem, the so-called
"Virgins's Fountains," in the valley of Kidron; and only one
well (Heb. beer), the Bir Eyub, also in the valley of Kidron,
south of the King's Gardens, which has been dug through the
solid rock. The inhabitants of Jerusalem are now mainly
dependent on the winter rains, which they store in cisterns.
Fountain of the Virgin
the perennial source from which the Pool of Siloam (q.v.) is
supplied, the waters flowing in a copious stream to it through a
tunnel cut through the rock, the actual length of which is 1,750
feet. The spring rises in a cave 20 feet by 7. A serpentine
tunnel 67 feet long runs from it toward the left, off which the
tunnel to the Pool of Siloam branches. It is the only unfailing
fountain in Jerusalem.
The fountain received its name from the "fantastic legend"
that here the virgin washed the swaddling-clothes of our Lord.
This spring has the singular characteristic of being
intermittent, flowing from three to five times daily in winter,
twice daily in summer, and only once daily in autumn. This
peculiarity is accounted for by the supposition that the outlet
from the reservoir is by a passage in the form of a siphon.
the arts of, referred to Ps. 91:3; 124:7; Prov. 6:5; Jer. 5:26;
Hos. 9:8; Ezek. 17:20; Eccl. 9:12. Birds of all kinds abound in
Palestine, and the capture of these for the table and for other
uses formed the employment of many persons. The traps and snares
used for this purpose are mentioned Hos. 5:1; Prov. 7:23; 22:5;
Amos 3:5; Ps. 69:22; comp. Deut. 22:6, 7.
(Heb. shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing under
ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of
this animal indigenous to Palestine. It burrows, is silent and
solitary in its habits, is destructive to vineyards, being a
plunderer of ripe grapes (Cant. 2:15). The Vulpes Niloticus, or
Egyptian dog-fox, and the Vulpes vulgaris, or common fox, are
also found in Palestine.
The proverbial cunning of the fox is alluded to in Ezek. 13:4,
and in Luke 13:32, where our Lord calls Herod "that fox." In
Judg. 15:4, 5, the reference is in all probability to the
jackal. The Hebrew word shu'al_ through the Persian _schagal
becomes our jackal (Canis aureus), so that the word may bear
that signification here. The reasons for preferring the
rendering "jackal" are (1) that it is more easily caught than
the fox; (2) that the fox is shy and suspicious, and flies
mankind, while the jackal does not; and (3) that foxes are
difficult, jackals comparatively easy, to treat in the way here
described. Jackals hunt in large numbers, and are still very
numerous in Southern Palestine.
(Heb. lebonah; Gr. libanos, i.e., "white"), an odorous resin
imported from Arabia (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 6:20), yet also growing in
Palestine (Cant. 4:14). It was one of the ingredients in the
perfume of the sanctuary (Ex. 30:34), and was used as an
accompaniment of the meat-offering (Lev. 2:1, 16; 6:15; 24:7).
When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and hence the incense
became a symbol of the Divine name (Mal. 1:11; Cant. 1:3) and an
emblem of prayer (Ps. 141:2; Luke 1:10; Rev. 5:8; 8:3).
This frankincense, or olibanum, used by the Jews in the temple
services is not to be confounded with the frankincense of modern
commerce, which is an exudation of the Norway spruce fir, the
Pinus abies. It was probably a resin from the Indian tree known
to botanists by the name of Boswellia serrata or thurifera,
which grows to the height of forty feet.
The law of Moses pointed out the cases in which the servants of
the Hebrews were to receive their freedom (Ex. 21:2-4, 7, 8;
Lev. 25:39-42, 47-55; Deut. 15:12-18). Under the Roman law the
"freeman" (ingenuus) was one born free; the "freedman"
(libertinus) was a manumitted slave, and had not equal rights
with the freeman (Acts 22:28; comp. Acts 16:37-39; 21:39; 22:25;
a spontaneous gift (Ex. 35:29), a voluntary sacrifice (Lev.
22:23; Ezra 3:5), as opposed to one in consequence of a vow, or
in expiation of some offence.
(Heb. tsepharde'a, meaning a "marsh-leaper"). This reptile is
mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of
the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Ex. 8:2-14; Ps.
In the New Testament this word occurs only in Rev. 16:13,
where it is referred to as a symbol of uncleanness. The only
species of frog existing in Palestine is the green frog (Rana
esculenta), the well-known edible frog of the Continent.
occurs only in Ex. 13:16; Deut. 6:8, and 11:18. The meaning of
the injunction to the Israelites, with regard to the statues and
precepts given them, that they should "bind them for a sign upon
their hand, and have them as frontlets between their eyes," was
that they should keep them distinctly in view and carefully
attend to them. But soon after their return from Babylon they
began to interpret this injunction literally, and had
accordingly portions of the law written out and worn about their
person. These they called tephillin, i.e., "prayers." The
passages so written out on strips of parchment were these, Ex.
12:2-10; 13:11-21; Deut. 6:4-9; 11:18-21. They were then "rolled
up in a case of black calfskin, which was attached to a stiffer
piece of leather, having a thong one finger broad and one cubit
and a half long. Those worn on the forehead were written on four
strips of parchment, and put into four little cells within a
square case, which had on it the Hebrew letter called shin, the
three points of which were regarded as an emblem of God." This
case tied around the forehead in a particular way was called
"the tephillah on the head." (See PHYLACTERY.)
(Heb. kerah, from its smoothness) Job 37:10 (R.V., "ice"); Gen.
31:40; Jer. 36:30; rendered "ice" in Job 6:16, 38:29; and
"crystal" in Ezek. 1:22. "At the present day frost is entirely
unknown in the lower portions of the valley of the Jordan, but
slight frosts are sometimes felt on the sea-coast and near
Lebanon." Throughout Western Asia cold frosty nights are
frequently succeeded by warm days.
"Hoar frost" (Heb. kephor, so called from its covering the
ground) is mentioned in Ex. 16:14; Job 38:29; Ps. 147:16.
In Ps. 78:47 the word rendered "frost" (R.V. marg., "great
hail-stones"), hanamal, occurs only there. It is rendered by
Gesenius, the Hebrew lexicographer, "ant," and so also by
others, but the usual interpretation derived from the ancient
versions may be maintained.
a word as used in Scripture denoting produce in general, whether
vegetable or animal. The Hebrews divided the fruits of the land
into three classes:,
(1.) The fruit of the field, "corn-fruit" (Heb. dagan); all
kinds of grain and pulse.
(2.) The fruit of the vine, "vintage-fruit" (Heb. tirosh);
grapes, whether moist or dried.
(3.) "Orchard-fruits" (Heb. yitshar), as dates, figs, citrons,
Injunctions concerning offerings and tithes were expressed by
these Hebrew terms alone (Num. 18:12; Deut. 14:23). This word
"fruit" is also used of children or offspring (Gen. 30:2; Deut.
7:13; Luke 1:42; Ps. 21:10; 132:11); also of the progeny of
beasts (Deut. 28:51; Isa. 14:29).
It is used metaphorically in a variety of forms (Ps. 104:13;
Prov. 1:31; 11:30; 31:16; Isa. 3:10; 10:12; Matt. 3:8; 21:41;
26:29; Heb. 13:15; Rom. 7:4, 5; 15:28).
The fruits of the Spirit (Gal. 5:22, 23; Eph. 5:9; James 3:17,
18) are those gracious dispositions and habits which the Spirit
produces in those in whom he dwells and works.
(Heb. marhesheth, a "boiler"), a pot for boiling meat (Lev. 2:7;
Almost every kind of combustible matter was used for fuel, such
as the withered stalks of herbs (Matt. 6:30), thorns (Ps. 58:9;
Eccl. 7:6), animal excrements (Ezek. 4:12-15; 15:4, 6; 21:32).
Wood or charcoal is much used still in all the towns of Syria
and Egypt. It is largely brought from the region of Hebron to
Jerusalem. (See COAL.)
Gen. 4:12, 14, a rover or wanderer (Heb. n'a); Judg. 12:4, a
refugee, one who has escaped (Heb. palit); 2 Kings 25:11, a
deserter, one who has fallen away to the enemy (Heb. nophel);
Ezek. 17:21, one who has broken away in flight (Heb. mibrah);
Isa. 15:5; 43:14, a breaker away, a fugitive (Heb. beriah), one
who flees away.
The word "full" is from the Anglo-Saxon fullian, meaning "to
whiten." To full is to press or scour cloth in a mill. This art
is one of great antiquity. Mention is made of "fuller's soap"
(Mal. 3:2), and of "the fuller's field" (2 Kings 18:17). At his
transfiguration our Lord's rainment is said to have been white
"so as no fuller on earth could white them" (Mark 9:3). En-rogel
(q.v.), meaning literally "foot-fountain," has been interpreted
as the "fuller's fountain," because there the fullers trod the
cloth with their feet.
a spot near Jerusalem (2 Kings 18:17; Isa. 36:2; 7:3), on the
side of the highway west of the city, not far distant from the
"upper pool" at the head of the valley of Hinnom. Here the
fullers pursued their occupation.
(Heb. borith mekabbeshim, i.e., "alkali of those treading
cloth"). Mention is made (Prov. 25:20; Jer. 2:22) of nitre and
also (Mal. 3:2) of soap (Heb. borith) used by the fuller in his
operations. Nitre is found in Syria, and vegetable alkali was
obtained from the ashes of certain plants. (See SOAP.)
(1.) Of time (Gal. 4:4), the time appointed by God, and foretold
by the prophets, when Messiah should appear. (2.) Of Christ
(John 1:16), the superabundance of grace with which he was
filled. (3.) Of the Godhead bodily dwelling in Christ (Col.
2:9), i.e., the whole nature and attributes of God are in
Christ. (4.) Eph. 1:23, the church as the fulness of Christ,
i.e., the church makes Christ a complete and perfect head.
Burying was among the Jews the only mode of disposing of corpses
(Gen. 23:19; 25:9; 35:8, 9, etc.).
The first traces of burning the dead are found in 1 Sam.
31:12. The burning of the body was affixed by the law of Moses
as a penalty to certain crimes (Lev. 20:14; 21:9).
To leave the dead unburied was regarded with horror (1 Kings
13:22; 14:11; 16:4; 21:24, etc.).
In the earliest times of which we have record kinsmen carried
their dead to the grave (Gen. 25:9; 35:29; Judg. 16:31), but in
later times this was done by others (Amos 6:16).
Immediately after decease the body was washed, and then
wrapped in a large cloth (Acts 9:37; Matt. 27:59; Mark 15:46).
In the case of persons of distinction, aromatics were laid on
the folds of the cloth (John 19:39; comp. John 12:7).
As a rule the burial (q.v.) took place on the very day of the
death (Acts 5:6, 10), and the body was removed to the grave in
an open coffin or on a bier (Luke 7:14). After the burial a
funeral meal was usually given (2 Sam. 3:35; Jer. 16:5, 7; Hos.
a stadium, a Greek measure of distance equal to 606 feet and 9
inches (Luke 24:13; John 6:19; 11:18; Rev. 14:20; 21:16).
(1.) Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at
the top of which materials were cast in (Dan. 3:22, 23; comp.
Jer. 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for
the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also
the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia.
(2.) Heb. kibshan, a smelting furnace (Gen. 19:28), also a
lime-kiln (Isa. 33:12; Amos 2:1).
(3.) Heb. kur, a refining furnace (Prov. 17:3; 27:21; Ezek.
(4.) Heb. alil, a crucible; only used in Ps. 12:6.
(5.) Heb. tannur, oven for baking bread (Gen. 15:17; Isa.
31:9; Neh. 3:11). It was a large pot, narrowing towards the top.
When it was heated by a fire made within, the dough was spread
over the heated surface, and thus was baked. "A smoking furnace
and a burning lamp" (Gen. 15:17), the symbol of the presence of
the Almighty, passed between the divided pieces of Abraham's
sacrifice in ratification of the covenant God made with him.
(6.) Gr. kamnos, a furnace, kiln, or oven (Matt. 13:42, 50;
Rev. 1:15; 9:2).
an opening in the ground made by the plough (Ps. 65:10; Hos.