the Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it
denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the
open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the
Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the
council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted
of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office,
and the ex-archons of blameless life.
On this hill of Mars (Gr. Ares) Paul delivered his memorable
address to the "men of Athens" (Acts 17:22-31).
the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea.
His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's
entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of
Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luke 3:19, 20; Mark 6:17; Matt.
14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas.
Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking
advantage of the complications of the times on account of the
death of the Emperor Tiberius (A.D. 37), took possession of
Damascus (2 Cor. 11:32; comp. Acts 9:25). At this time Paul
returned to Damascus from Arabia.
stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30
miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of
Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the
extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over
by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New
Testament (Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the
Israelites (Deut. 3:4; 1 Kings 4:13). It is now called the
Lejah. Here "sixty walled cities are still traceable in a space
of 308 square miles. The architecture is ponderous and massive.
Solid walls 4 feet thick, and stones on one another without
cement; the roofs enormous slabs of basaltic rock, like iron;
the doors and gates are of stone 18 inches thick, secured by
ponderous bars. The land bears still the appearance of having
been called the 'land of giants' under the giant Og." "I have
more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken
possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace.
Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect,
as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs
unbroken, and even the window-shutters in their places. These
ancient cities of Bashan probably contain the very oldest
specimens of domestic architecture in the world" (Porter's Giant
Cities). (See BASHAN.)
the lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah
at Samaria (2 Kings 15:25) by the conspirator Pekah.
the lion of God.
(1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to
procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezra 8:16).
(2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1, 2, 7) as
"victorious under God," and in Ezek. 43:15, 16, for the altar
(marg., Heb. 'ariel) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's
a "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in
whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matt. 27:57, 60; John 19:38).
It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the
birth-place of Samuel (1 Sam. 1:1, 19). Others identify it with
Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).
(1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate
with Chedorlamer (Gen. 14:1,9). The tablets recently discovered
by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA) show the true reading is
Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the
moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O
(2.) Dan. 2:14.
best ruler, native of Thessalonica (Acts 20:4), a companion of
Paul (Acts 19:29; 27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome
(Col. 4:10; Philemon 1:24).
a Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans (16:10), whose
"household" is saluated.
Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch,
300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high (Gen.
6:14-16); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door
in the side and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in
building (Gen. 5:32; 7:6). It was intended to preserve certain
persons and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring
over the earth. It contained eight persons (Gen. 7:13; 2 Pet.
2:5), and of all "clean" animals seven pairs, and of "unclean"
one pair, and of birds seven pairs of each sort (Gen. 7:2, 3).
It was in the form of an oblong square, with flat bottom and
sloping roof. Traditions of the Deluge, by which the race of man
was swept from the earth, and of the ark of Noah have been found
existing among all nations.
The ark of bulrushes in which the infant Moses was laid (Ex.
2:3) is called in the Hebrew teebah, a word derived from the
Egyptian teb, meaning "a chest." It was daubed with slime and
with pitch. The bulrushes of which it was made were the papyrus
The sacred ark is designated by a different Hebrew word,
'aron', which is the common name for a chest or coffer used
for any purpose (Gen. 50:26; 2 Kings 12:9, 10). It is
distinguished from all others by such titles as the "ark of God"
(1 Sam. 3:3), "ark of the covenant" (Josh. 3:6; Heb. 9:4), "ark
of the testimony" (Ex. 25:22). It was made of acacia or shittim
wood, a cubit and a half broad and high and two cubits long, and
covered all over with the purest gold. Its upper surface or lid,
the mercy-seat, was surrounded with a rim of gold; and on each
of the two sides were two gold rings, in which were placed two
gold-covered poles by which the ark could be carried (Num. 7:9;
10:21; 4:5,19, 20; 1 Kings 8:3, 6). Over the ark, at the two
extremities, were two cherubim, with their faces turned toward
each other (Lev. 16:2; Num. 7:89). Their outspread wings over
the top of the ark formed the throne of God, while the ark
itself was his footstool (Ex. 25:10-22; 37:1-9). The ark was
deposited in the "holy of holies," and was so placed that one
end of the poles by which it was carried touched the veil which
separated the two apartments of the tabernacle (1 Kings 8:8).
The two tables of stone which constituted the "testimony" or
evidence of God's covenant with the people (Deut. 31:26), the
"pot of manna" (Ex. 16:33), and "Aaron's rod that budded" (Num.
17:10), were laid up in the ark (Heb. 9:4). (See TABERNACLE) The ark and the sanctuary were "the beauty of Israel"
(Lam. 2:1). During the journeys of the Israelites the ark was
carried by the priests in advance of the host (Num. 4:5, 6;
10:33-36; Ps. 68:1; 132:8). It was borne by the priests into the
bed of the Jordan, which separated, opening a pathway for the
whole of the host to pass over (Josh. 3:15, 16; 4:7, 10, 11, 17,
18). It was borne in the procession round Jericho (Josh. 6:4, 6,
8, 11, 12). When carried it was always wrapped in the veil, the
badgers' skins, and blue cloth, and carefully concealed even
from the eyes of the Levites who carried it. After the
settlement of Israel in Palestine the ark remained in the
tabernacle at Gilgal for a season, and was then removed to
Shiloh till the time of Eli, between 300 and 400 years (Jer.
7:12), when it was carried into the field of battle so as to
secure, as they supposed, victory to the Hebrews, and was taken
by the Philistines (1 Sam. 4:3-11), who sent it back after
retaining it seven months (1 Sam. 5:7, 8). It remained then at
Kirjath-jearim (7:1,2) till the time of David (twenty years),
who wished to remove it to Jerusalem; but the proper mode of
removing it having been neglected, Uzzah was smitten with death
for putting "forth his hand to the ark of God," and in
consequence of this it was left in the house of Obed-edom in
Gath-rimmon for three months (2 Sam. 6:1-11), at the end of
which time David removed it in a grand procession to Jerusalem,
where it was kept till a place was prepared for it (12-19). It
was afterwards deposited by Solomon in the temple (1 Kings
8:6-9). When the Babylonians destroyed Jerusalem and plundered
the temple, the ark was probably taken away by Nebuchadnezzar
and destroyed, as no trace of it is afterwards to be found. The
absence of the ark from the second temple was one of the points
in which it was inferior to the first temple.
(Gen. 10:17; 1 Chr. 1:15), a designation of certain descendants
from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12
miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of
used to denote power (Ps. 10:15; Ezek. 30:21; Jer. 48:25). It is
also used of the omnipotence of God (Ex. 15:16; Ps. 89:13; 98:1;
77:15; Isa. 53:1; John 12:38; Acts 13:17)
occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically
designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God
Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word properly means the
"mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict
between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was
suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of
high land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2 Kings 19:37; in
Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country
in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea.
Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen. 8:4). It is
for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras,
the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the
name of a part of ancient Armenia. Three provinces of Armenia
are mentioned in Jer. 51:27, Ararat, Minni, and Ashchenaz. Some,
however, think Minni a contraction for Armenia. (See ARARAT.)
inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of
Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David,
and hanged by them (2 Sam. 21:8, 9).
is employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment,
both offensive and defensive.
(1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods
of history. The "rod of iron" (Ps. 2:9) is supposed to mean a
mace or crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a
strong arm. The "maul" (Prov. 25:18; cognate Hebrew word
rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20, and "slaughter weapon" in
Ezek. 9:2) was a war-hammer or martel. The "sword" is the usual
translation of hereb, which properly means "poniard." The real
sword, as well as the dirk-sword (which was always
double-edged), was also used (1 Sam. 17:39; 2 Sam. 20:8; 1 Kings
20:11). The spear was another offensive weapon (Josh. 8:18; 1
Sam. 17:7). The javelin was used by light troops (Num. 25:7, 8;
1 Sam. 13:22). Saul threw a javelin at David (1 Sam. 19:9, 10),
and so virtually absolved him from his allegiance. The bow was,
however, the chief weapon of offence. The arrows were carried in
a quiver, the bow being always unbent till the moment of action
(Gen. 27:3; 48:22; Ps. 18:34). The sling was a favourite weapon
of the Benjamites (1 Sam. 17:40; 1 Chr. 12:2. Comp. 1 Sam.
(2.) Of the defensive armour a chief place is assigned to the
shield or buckler. There were the great shield or target (the
tzinnah), for the protection of the whole person (Gen. 15:1;
Ps. 47:9; 1 Sam. 17:7; Prov. 30:5), and the buckler (Heb.
mageen) or small shield (1 Kings 10:17; Ezek. 26:8). In Ps.
91:4 "buckler" is properly a roundel appropriated to archers or
slingers. The helmet (Ezek. 27:10; 1 Sam. 17:38), a covering for
the head; the coat of mail or corselet (1 Sam. 17:5), or
habergeon (Neh. 4;16), harness or breat-plate (Rev. 9:9), for
the covering of the back and breast and both upper arms (Isa.
59:17; Eph. 6:14). The cuirass and corselet, composed of leather
or quilted cloth, were also for the covering of the body.
Greaves, for the covering of the legs, were worn in the time of
David (1 Sam. 17:6). Reference is made by Paul (Eph. 6:14-17) to
the panoply of a Roman soldier. The shield here is the thureon,
a door-like oblong shield above all, i.e., covering the whole
person, not the small round shield. There is no armour for the
back, but only for the front.
an officer selected by kings and generals because of his
bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by
them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our
modern armies (Judg. 9:54; 1 Sam. 14:7; 16:21; 31:6).
the place in which armour was deposited when not used (Neh.
3:19; Jer. 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own
arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or
magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large
collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his
tabernacle (1 Sa,. 21:9; 2 Sam. 8:7-12; 1 Chr. 26:26, 27).
The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order (Ex.
13:18, "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed
a battalion, with its own banner and leader (Num. 2:2; 10:14).
In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under
their several captains (Num. 31:14), and also into families
(Num. 2:34; 2 Chr. 25:5; 26:12). From the time of their entering
the land of Canaan to the time of the kings, the Israelites made
little progress in military affairs, although often engaged in
warfare. The kings introduced the custom of maintaining a
bodyguard (the Gibborim; i.e., "heroes"), and thus the nucleus
of a standing army was formed. Saul had an army of 3,000 select
warriors (1 Sam. 13:2; 14:52; 24:2). David also had a band of
soldiers around him (1 Sam. 23:13; 25:13). To this band he
afterwards added the Cherethites and the Pelethites (2 Sam.
15:18; 20:7). At first the army consisted only of infantry (1
Sam. 4:10; 15:4), as the use of horses was prohibited (Deut.
17:16); but chariots and horses were afterwards added (2 Sam.
8:4; 1 Kings 10:26, 28, 29; 1 Kings 9:19). In 1 Kings 9:22 there
is given a list of the various gradations of rank held by those
who composed the army. The equipment and maintenance of the army
were at the public expense (2 Sam. 17:28, 29; 1 Kings 4:27;
10:16, 17; Judg. 20:10). At the Exodus the number of males above
twenty years capable of bearing arms was 600,000 (Ex. 12:37). In
David's time it mounted to the number of 1,300,000 (2 Sam.
swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond
Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab (Deut. 3:8, 16).
This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in
the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about
80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly
opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now
called el-Mujeb. The territory of the Amorites extended from the
Arnon to the Jabbok.
(1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon (Deut. 4:48;
Judg. 11:26; 2 Kings 10:33), the southern boundary of the
kingdom of Sihon (Josh. 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles
west of the Dead Sea.
(2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:34)
"before Rabbah" (Josh. 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was
famous in the history of Jephthah (Judg. 11:33) and of David (2
Sam. 24:5). (Comp. Isa. 17:2; 2 Kings 15:29.)
(3.) A city in the south of Judah, 12 miles south-east of
Beersheba, to which David sent presents after recovering the
spoil from the Amalekites at Ziklag (1 Sam. 30:26, 28). It was
the native city of two of David's warriors (1 Chr. 11:44). It is
now called Ar'arah.
(Isa. 10:9; 36:19; 37:13), also Arphad, support, a Syrian city
near Hamath, along with which it is invariably mentioned (2
Kings 19:13; 18:34; Isa. 10:9), and Damascus (Jer. 49:23). After
a siege of three years it fell (B.C. 742) before the Assyrian
king Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.
son of Shem, born the year after the Deluge. He died at the age
of 438 years (Gen. 11:10-13; 1 Chr. 1:17, 18; Luke 3:36). He
dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish
historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans. The
tendency is to recognize in the word the name of the country
nearest the ancient domain of the Chaldeans. Some regard the
word as an Egypticized form of the territorial name of Ur
Kasdim, or Ur of the Chaldees.
At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron.
Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning (Deut.
32:23, 42; Ps. 7:13; 18:14; 144:6; Zech. 9:14). They were used
in war as well as in the chase (Gen. 27:3; 49:23). They were
also used in divination (Ezek. 21:21).
The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or
disease inflicted by God (Job 6:4; 34:6; Ps. 38:2; Deut. 32:23.
Comp. Ezek. 5:16), or of some sudden danger (Ps. 91:5), or
bitter words (Ps. 64:3), or false testimony (Prov. 25:18).
the Greek form of the name of several Persian kings.
king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He
was probably the Smerdis of profane history.
(2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, in the seventh year (B.C.
458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to
Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years
(B.C. 464-425); the grandson of Darius, who, fourteen years
later, permitted Nehemiah to return and rebuild Jerusalem.
a person engaged in any kind of manual occupation (Gen. 4:22;
1 Sam. 20:40, (Heb. keli, meaning "apparatus;" here meaning
collectively any missile weapons, as arrows and lances. In
Revised Version, "weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin
artillaria = equipment of war.
wandering, (Ezek. 27:8), a small island and city on the coast of
Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre.
The inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is written
Aruada or Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.
physician, son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam, was the third
king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of
God, and in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying
immoralities, out of the land (1 Kings 15:8-14). The Lord gave
him and his land rest and prosperity. It is recorded of him,
however, that in his old age, when afflicted, he "sought not to
the Lord, but to the physicians" (comp. Jer. 17:5). He died in
the forty-first year of his reign, greatly honoured by his
people (2 Chr. 16:1-13), and was succeeded by his son
made by God, the youngest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was
celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting against
Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab, he was
put to death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle
(2 Sam. 2:18, 19). He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty
men (2 Sam. 23:24; 1 Chr. 11:26). Others of the same name are
mentioned (2 Chr. 17:8; 31:13; Ezra 10:15).
convener, or collector.
(1.) A Levite; one of the leaders of
David's choir (1 Chr. 6:39). Psalms 50 and 73-83 inclusive are
attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled
in music, and a "seer" (2 Chr. 29:30). The "sons of Asaph,"
mentioned in 1 Chr. 25:1, 2 Chr. 20:14, and Ezra 2:41, were his
descendants, or more probably a class of poets or singers who
recognized him as their master.
(2.) The "recorder" in the time of Hezekiah (2 Kings 18:18,
(3.) The "keeper of the king's forest," to whom Nehemiah
requested from Artaxerxes a "letter" that he might give him
timber for the temple at Jerusalem (Neh. 2:8).
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of
Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen.
41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;
(Heb. o'ren, "tremulous"), mentioned only Isa. 44:14 (R.V., "fir
tree"). It is rendered "pine tree" both in the LXX. and Vulgate
versions. There is a tree called by the Arabs aran, found
still in the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles
that of the mountain ash. This may be the tree meant. Our ash
tree is not known in Syria.
stronghold, a Philistine city (Josh. 15:47), about midway
between Gaza and Joppa, and 3 miles from the Mediterranean. It
was one of the chief seats of the worship of Dagon (1 Sam. 5:5).
It belonged to the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:47), but it never
came into their actual possession. It was an important city, as
it stood on the highroad from Egypt to Palestine, and hence was
strongly fortified (2 Chr. 26:6; Isa. 20:1). Uzziah took it, but
fifty years after his death it was taken by the Assyrians (B.C.
758). According to Sargon's record, it was captured by him in
B.C. 711. The only reference to it in the New Testament, where
it is called Azotus, is in the account of Philip's return from
Gaza (Acts 8:40). It is now called Eshdud.
(Deut. 3:17; Josh. 12:3; 13:20) in Authorized Version, but in
Revised Version translated "slopes of Pisgah." In Deut. 4:49 it
is translated in the Authorized Version "springs of Pisgah." The
name Ashdoth is translated "springs" in the Authorized Version,
but "slopes" in the Revised Version, of Josh. 10:40 and 12:8. It
has been identified with the springs under Mount Nebo, now
called 'Ayun Musa.
happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid
(Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded
beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;
46:17; Ex. 1:4, etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine
percent, during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of
this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan
and Naphtali (Num. 2:27). The boundaries of the inheritance
given to it, which contained some of the richest soil in
Palestine, and the names of its towns, are recorded in Josh.
19:24-31; Judg. 1:31, 32. Asher and Simeon were the only tribes
west of the Jordan which furnished no hero or judge for the
nation. Anna the prophetess was of this tribe (Luke 2:36).
and pl. Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and
"groves" of the Authorized Version. This was the name of a
sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of the
Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of
its boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the
ground. Such religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded
to in Scripture (Ex. 34:13; Judg. 6:25; 2 Kings 23:6; 1 Kings
16:33, etc.). These images were also sometimes made of silver or
of carved stone (2 Kings 21:7; "the graven image of Asherah,"
R.V.). (See GROVE .).
The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when
sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb.
To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence
and humiliation (2 Sam. 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, etc.).
To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will
prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the
unsatisfactory nature of idol-worship. (Comp. Hos. 12:1).
=Askelon=Ascalon, was one of the five cities of the Philistines
(Josh. 13:3; 1 Sam. 6:17). It stood on the shore of the
Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an
inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king
Rameses II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the
judges (Judg. 1:18) it fell into the possession of the tribe of
Judah; but it was soon after retaken by the Philistines (2 Sam.
1:20), who were not finally dispossessed till the time of
Alexander the Great. Samson went down to this place from
Timnath, and slew thirty men and took their spoil. The prophets
foretold its destruction (Jer. 25:20; 47:5, 7). It became a
noted place in the Middle Ages, having been the scene of many a
bloody battle between the Saracens and the Crusaders. It was
beseiged and taken by Richard the Lion-hearted, and "within its
walls and towers now standing he held his court." Among the Tell
Amarna tablets (see EGYPT) are found letters or
official despatches from Yadaya, "captain of horse and dust of
the king's feet," to the "great king" of Egypt, dated from
Ascalon. It is now called 'Askalan.
one of the three sons of Gomer (Gen. 10:3), and founder of one
of the tribes of the Japhetic race. They are mentioned in
connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original seat
must have been in Armenia (Jer. 51:27), probably near the Black
Sea, which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and
afterwards the Euxine.
the master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:3), the
"Rabsaris" of the court. His position was similar to that of the
Kislar-aga of the modern Turkish sultans.
a city of Bashan, in the kingdom of Og (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 12:4;
13:12; 9:10). It was in the half-tribe of Manasseh (Josh.
13:12), and as a Levitical city was given to the Gershonites (1
Chr. 6:71). Uzzia, one of David's valiant men (1 Chr. 11:44), is
named as of this city. It is identified with Tell Ashterah, in
the Hauran, and is noticed on monuments B.C. 1700-1500. The name
Beesh-terah (Josh. 21:27) is a contraction for Beth-eshterah,
i.e., "the house of Ashtaroth."
Ashteroth of the two horns, the abode of the Rephaim (Gen.
14:5). It may be identified with Ashtaroth preceding; called
"Karnaim", i.e., the "two-horned" (the crescent moon). The
Samaritan version renders the word by "Sunamein," the present
es-Sunamein, 28 miles south of Damascus.
the moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive
principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently
associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male
deity (Judg. 10:6; 1 Sam. 7:4; 12:10). These names often occur
in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either
different statues or different modifications of the deities.
This deity is spoken of as Ashtoreth of the Zidonians. She was
the Ishtar of the Accadians and the Astarte of the Greeks (Jer.
44:17; 1 Kings 11:5, 33; 2 Kings 23:13). There was a temple of
this goddess among the Philistines in the time of Saul (1 Sam.
31:10). Under the name of Ishtar, she was one of the great
deities of the Assyrians. The Phoenicians called her Astarte.
Solomon introduced the worship of this idol (1 Kings 11:33).
Jezebel's 400 priests were probably employed in its service (1
Kings 18:19). It was called the "queen of heaven" (Jer. 44:25).
mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king (2
is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a Roman province which
embraced the western parts of Asia Minor, and of which Ephesus
was the capital, in Acts 2:9; 6:9; 16:6; 19:10,22; 20:4, 16, 18,
etc., and probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, 27; 21:27; 24:18;
27:2. Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of the
Apocalypse (Rev. 1:11). The "chiefs of Asia" (Acts 19:31) were
certain wealthy citizens who were annually elected to preside
over the games and religious festivals of the several cities to
which they belonged. Some of these "Asiarchs" were Paul's
probably the same as Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalos of the
Greeks), styled the "great and noble" (Ezra 4:10), was the son
and successor (B.C. 668) of Esar-haddon (q.v.). He was
"luxurious, ambitious, and cruel, but a magnificent patron of
literature." He formed at Nineveh a library of clay tablets,
numbering about 10,000. These are now mostly in the British
Museum. They throw much light on the history and antiquities of
Assur-bani-pal was a munificent patron of literature, and the
conqueror of Elam. Towards the middle of his reign his empire
was shaken by a great rebellion headed by his brother in
Babylon. The rebellion was finally put down, but Egypt was lost,
and the military power of Assyria was so exhausted that it could
with difficulty resist the hordes of Kimmerians who poured over
Western Asia. (See NINEVEH.)
(Heb. pethen), Deut. 32:33; Job 20:14, 16; Isa. 11:8. It was
probably the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), which was very
poisonous (Rom. 3:13; Gr. aspis). The Egyptians worshipped it as
the uraeus, and it was found in the desert and in the fields.
The peace and security of Messiah's reign is represented by the
figure of a child playing on the hole of the asp. (See ADDER.)
frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated
species we read of,
(1.) The she ass (Heb. 'athon), so named
from its slowness (Gen. 12:16; 45:23; Num. 22:23; 1 Sam. 9:3).
(2.) The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of
Western Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is
compared to a strong ass (Gen. 49:14). It was forbidden to yoke
together an ass and an ox in the plough (Deut. 22:10).
ass's colt (Heb. 'air), mentioned Judg. 10:4; 12:14. It is
rendered "foal" in Gen. 32:15; 49:11. (Comp. Job 11:12; Isa.
30:6.) The ass is an unclean animal, because it does not chew
the cud (Lev. 11:26. Comp. 2 Kings 6:25). Asses constituted a
considerable portion of wealth in ancient times (Gen. 12:16;
30:43; 1 Chr. 27:30; Job 1:3; 42:12). They were noted for their
spirit and their attachment to their master (Isa. 1:3). They are
frequently spoken of as having been ridden upon, as by Abraham
(Gen. 22:3), Balaam (Num. 22:21), the disobedient prophet (1
Kings 13:23), the family of Abdon the judge, seventy in number
(Judg. 12:14), Zipporah (Ex. 4:20), the Shunammite (1 Sam.
25:30), etc. Zechariah (9:9) predicted our Lord's triumphal
entrance into Jerusalem, "riding upon an ass, and upon a colt,"
etc. (Matt. 21:5, R.V.).
Of wild asses two species are noticed, (1) that called in
Hebrew 'arod, mentioned Job 39:5 and Dan. 5:21, noted for its
swiftness; and (2) that called pe're, the wild ass of Asia
(Job 39:6-8; 6:5; 11:12; Isa. 32:14; Jer. 2:24; 14:6, etc.). The
wild ass was distinguished for its fleetness and its extreme
shyness. In allusion to his mode of life, Ishmael is likened to
a wild ass (Gen. 16:12. Here the word is simply rendered "wild"
in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "wild-ass
second son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1 Chr. 1:17). He went from the
land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc. (Gen. 10:11,12). He
probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual
translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes
retained (Num. 24:22, 24; Ezek. 27:23, etc.). In Gen. 2:14
"Assyria" ought to be "Asshur," which was the original capital
of Assyria, a city represented by the mounds of Kalah Sherghat,
on the west bank of the Tigris. This city was founded by
Bel-kap-kapu about B.C. 1700. At a later date the capital was
shifted to Ninua, or Nineveh, now Koyunjik, on the eastern bank
of the river. (See CALAH; NINEVEH.)
a sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia,
on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither
on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, 14), a
distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas
by sea. The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles
The resurrection of Jesus (Acts 17:31) is the "assurance" (Gr.
pistis, generally rendered "faith") or pledge God has given that
his revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The "full
assurance [Gr. plerophoria, 'full bearing'] of faith" (Heb.
10:22) is a fulness of faith in God which leaves no room for
doubt. The "full assurance of understanding" (Col. 2:2) is an
entire unwavering conviction of the truth of the declarations of
Scripture, a joyful steadfastness on the part of any one of
conviction that he has grasped the very truth. The "full
assurance of hope" (Heb. 6:11) is a sure and well-grounded
expectation of eternal glory (2 Tim. 4:7, 8). This assurance of
hope is the assurance of a man's own particular salvation.
This infallible assurance, which believers may attain unto as
to their own personal salvation, is founded on the truth of the
promises (Heb. 6:18), on the inward evidence of Christian
graces, and on the testimony of the Spirit of adoption (Rom.
8:16). That such a certainty may be attained appears from the
testimony of Scripture (Rom. 8:16; 1 John 2:3; 3:14), from the
command to seek after it (Heb. 6:11; 2 Pet. 1:10), and from the
fact that it has been attained (2 Tim. 1:12; 4:7, 8; 1 John 2:3;
This full assurance is not of the essence of saving faith. It
is the result of faith, and posterior to it in the order of
nature, and so frequently also in the order of time. True
believers may be destitute of it. Trust itself is something
different from the evidence that we do trust. Believers,
moreover, are exhorted to go on to something beyond what they at
present have when they are exhorted to seek the grace of full
assurance (Heb. 10:22; 2 Pet. 1:5-10). The attainment of this
grace is a duty, and is to be diligently sought.
"Genuine assurance naturally leads to a legitimate and abiding
peace and joy, and to love and thankfulness to God; and these
from the very laws of our being to greater buoyancy, strength,
and cheerfulness in the practice of obedience in every
department of duty."
This assurance may in various ways be shaken, diminished, and
intermitted, but the principle out of which it springs can never
be lost. (See FAITH.)
the name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the
original capital of the country, was originally a colony from
Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a
mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending
along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of
Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded
in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, and became an independent and a
conquering power, and shook off the yoke of its Babylonian
masters. It subdued the whole of Northern Asia. The Assyrians
were Semites (Gen. 10:22), but in process of time non-Semite
tribes mingled with the inhabitants. They were a military
people, the "Romans of the East."
Of the early history of the kingdom of Assyria little is
positively known. In B.C. 1120 Tiglath-pileser I., the greatest
of the Assyrian kings, "crossed the Euphrates, defeated the
kings of the Hittites, captured the city of Carchemish, and
advanced as far as the shores of the Mediterranean." He may be
regarded as the founder of the first Assyrian empire. After this
the Assyrians gradually extended their power, subjugating the
states of Northern Syria. In the reign of Ahab, king of Israel,
Shalmaneser II. marched an army against the Syrian states, whose
allied army he encountered and vanquished at Karkar. This led to
Ahab's casting off the yoke of Damascus and allying himself with
Judah. Some years after this the Assyrian king marched an army
against Hazael, king of Damascus. He besieged and took that
city. He also brought under tribute Jehu, and the cities of Tyre
About a hundred years after this (B.C. 745) the crown was
seized by a military adventurer called Pul, who assumed the name
of Tiglath-pileser III. He directed his armies into Syria, which
had by this time regained its independence, and took (B.C. 740)
Arpad, near Aleppo, after a siege of three years, and reduced
Hamath. Azariah (Uzziah) was an ally of the king of Hamath, and
thus was compelled by Tiglath-pileser to do him homage and pay a
In B.C. 738, in the reign of Menahem, king of Israel, Pul
invaded Israel, and imposed on it a heavy tribute (2 Kings
15:19). Ahaz, the king of Judah, when engaged in a war against
Israel and Syria, appealed for help to this Assyrian king by
means of a present of gold and silver (2 Kings 16:8); who
accordingly "marched against Damascus, defeated and put Rezin to
death, and besieged the city itself." Leaving a portion of his
army to continue the siege, "he advanced through the province
east of Jordan, spreading fire and sword," and became master of
Philistia, and took Samaria and Damascus. He died B.C. 727, and
was succeeded by Shalmanezer IV., who ruled till B.C. 722. He
also invaded Syria (2 Kings 17:5), but was deposed in favour of
Sargon (q.v.) the Tartan, or commander-in-chief of the army, who
took Samaria (q.v.) after a siege of three years, and so put an
end to the kingdom of Israel, carrying the people away into
captivity, B.C. 722 (2 Kings 17:1-6, 24; 18:7, 9). He also
overran the land of Judah, and took the city of Jerusalem (Isa.
10:6, 12, 22, 24, 34). Mention is next made of Sennacherib (B.C.
705), the son and successor of Sargon (2 Kings 18:13; 19:37;
Isa. 7:17, 18); and then of Esar-haddon, his son and successor,
who took Manasseh, king of Judah, captive, and kept him for some
time a prisoner at Babylon, which he alone of all the Assyrian
kings made the seat of his government (2 Kings 19:37; Isa.
Assur-bani-pal, the son of Esarhaddon, became king, and in
Ezra 4:10 is referred to as Asnapper. From an early period
Assyria had entered on a conquering career, and having absorbed
Babylon, the kingdoms of Hamath, Damascus, and Samaria, it
conquered Phoenicia, and made Judea feudatory, and subjected
Philistia and Idumea. At length, however, its power declined. In
B.C. 727 the Babylonians threw off the rule of the Assyrians,
under the leadership of the powerful Chaldean prince
Merodach-baladan (2 Kings 20:12), who, after twelve years, was
subdued by Sargon, who now reunited the kingdom, and ruled over
a vast empire. But on his death the smouldering flames of
rebellion again burst forth, and the Babylonians and Medes
successfully asserted their independence (B.C. 625), and Assyria
fell according to the prophecies of Isaiah (10:5-19), Nahum
(3:19), and Zephaniah (3:13), and the many separate kingdoms of
which it was composed ceased to recognize the "great king" (2
Kings 18:19; Isa. 36:4). Ezekiel (31) attests (about B.C. 586)
how completely Assyria was overthrown. It ceases to be a nation.
(See NINEVEH; BABYLON.)
(Dan. 1:20; 2:2, 10, 27, etc.) Heb. 'ashshaph', an enchanter,
one who professes to divine future events by the appearance of
the stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was
positively forbidden to the Jews (Deut. 4:19; 18:10; Isa.
The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry
firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In the Book of Job, which is the
oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations
are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning
star" (Rev. 2:28; comp. Isa. 14:12), the "seven stars" and
"Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job
9:9; 38:31), "the crooked serpent," Draco (Job 26:13), the
Dioscuri, or Gemini, "Castor and Pollux" (Acts 28:11). The stars
were called "the host of heaven" (Isa. 40:26; Jer. 33:22).
The oldest divisions of time were mainly based on the
observation of the movements of the heavenly bodies, the
"ordinances of heaven" (Gen. 1:14-18; Job 38:33; Jer. 31:35;
33:25). Such observations led to the division of the year into
months and the mapping out of the appearances of the stars into
twelve portions, which received from the Greeks the name of the
"zodiac." The word "Mazzaroth" (Job 38:32) means, as the margin
notes, "the twelve signs" of the zodiac. Astronomical
observations were also necessary among the Jews in order to the
fixing of the proper time for sacred ceremonies, the "new
moons," the "passover," etc. Many allusions are found to the
display of God's wisdom and power as seen in the starry heavens
(Ps. 8; 19:1-6; Isa. 51:6, etc.)
(1 Chr. 26:15, 17, Authorized Version; but in Revised Version,
"storehouse"), properly the house of stores for the priests. In
Neh. 12:25 the Authorized Version has "thresholds," marg.
"treasuries" or "assemblies;" Revised Version, "storehouses."
buckthorn, a place where Joseph and his brethren, when on their
way from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of their father Jacob,
made for seven days a "great and very sore lamentation." On this
account the Canaanites called it "Abel-mizraim" (Gen. 50:10,
11). It was probably near Hebron. The word is rendered "bramble"
in Judg. 9:14, 15, and "thorns" in Ps. 58:9.
(1.) A city east of Jordan, not far from Gilead (Num.
(2.) A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:2,
7), called also Ataroth-adar (16:5). Now ed-Da'rieh.
(3.) "Ataroth, the house of Joab" (1 Chr. 2:54), a town of
Judah inhabited by the descendants of Caleb.
(1.) Ezra 2:16. (2.) Neh. 10:17. (3.) Ezra 2:42.
whom God afflicts.
(1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and
the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2 Kings 8:18), who "walked
in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2 Chr. 21:6), called
"daughter" of Omri (2 Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband
and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the
vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the
youngest (2 Kings 11:1,2). After a reign of six years she was
put to death in an insurrection (2 Kings 11:20; 2 Chr. 21:6;
22:10-12; 23:15), stirred up among the people in connection with
Josiah's being crowned as king.
(2.) Ezra 8:7.
(3.) 1 Chr. 8:26.
the capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient
world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden
period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty
(Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship
of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist
that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man."
On his second missionary journey Paul visited this city (Acts
17:15; comp. 1 Thess. 3:1), and delivered in the Areopagus his
famous speech (17:22-31). The altar of which Paul there speaks
as dedicated "to the [properly "an"] unknown God" (23) was
probably one of several which bore the same inscription. It is
supposed that they originated in the practice of letting loose a
flock of sheep and goats in the streets of Athens on the
occasion of a plague, and of offering them up in sacrifice, at
the spot where they lay down, "to the god concerned."
This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New
Testament except in Rom. 5:11, where in the Revised Version the
word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of
The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state
of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is
reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which flows
from the death of Christ.
But the word is also used to denote that by which this
reconciliation is brought about, viz., the death of Christ
itself; and when so used it means satisfaction, and in this
sense to make an atonement for one is to make satisfaction for
his offences (Ex. 32:30; Lev. 4:26; 5:16; Num. 6:11), and, as
regards the person, to reconcile, to propitiate God in his
By the atonement of Christ we generally mean his work by which
he expiated our sins. But in Scripture usage the word denotes
the reconciliation itself, and not the means by which it is
effected. When speaking of Christ's saving work, the word
"satisfaction," the word used by the theologians of the
Reformation, is to be preferred to the word "atonement."
Christ's satisfaction is all he did in the room and in behalf of
sinners to satisfy the demands of the law and justice of God.
Christ's work consisted of suffering and obedience, and these
were vicarious, i.e., were not merely for our benefit, but were
in our stead, as the suffering and obedience of our vicar, or
substitute. Our guilt is expiated by the punishment which our
vicar bore, and thus God is rendered propitious, i.e., it is now
consistent with his justice to manifest his love to
transgressors. Expiation has been made for sin, i.e., it is
covered. The means by which it is covered is vicarious
satisfaction, and the result of its being covered is atonement
or reconciliation. To make atonement is to do that by virtue of
which alienation ceases and reconciliation is brought about.
Christ's mediatorial work and sufferings are the ground or
efficient cause of reconciliation with God. They rectify the
disturbed relations between God and man, taking away the
obstacles interposed by sin to their fellowship and concord. The
reconciliation is mutual, i.e., it is not only that of sinners
toward God, but also and pre-eminently that of God toward
sinners, effected by the sin-offering he himself provided, so
that consistently with the other attributes of his character his
love might flow forth in all its fulness of blessing to men. The
primary idea presented to us in different forms throughout the
Scripture is that the death of Christ is a satisfaction of
infinite worth rendered to the law and justice of God (q.v.),
and accepted by him in room of the very penalty man had
incurred. It must also be constantly kept in mind that the
atonement is not the cause but the consequence of God's love to
guilty men (John 3:16; Rom. 3:24, 25; Eph. 1:7; 1 John 1:9;
4:9). The atonement may also be regarded as necessary, not in an
absolute but in a relative sense, i.e., if man is to be saved,
there is no other way than this which God has devised and
carried out (Ex. 34:7; Josh. 24:19; Ps. 5:4; 7:11; Nahum 1:2, 6;
Rom. 3:5). This is God's plan, clearly revealed; and that is
enough for us to know.
Atonement, Day of
the great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins
of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one
commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is
described in Lev. 16:3-10; 23:26-32; and Num. 29:7-11.
It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five
days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to
sunset. (See AZAZEL.)
the cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar
Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luke 2:1). His
decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely
ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy
(Micah 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title
meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the
senate (B.C. 27), was borne by succeeding emperors. Before his
death (A.D. 14) he associated Tiberius with him in the empire
(Luke 3:1), by whom he was succeeded.
(Acts 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta,
the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar).
Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers
belonging to Caesarea.
a place in Assyria from which colonies were brought to Samaria
(2 Kings 17:24). It is probably the same with Ivah (18:34;
19:13; Isa. 37:13). It has been identified with Hit on the
(1.) Hosea speaks of the "high places of
Aven" (10:8), by which he means Bethel. He also calls it
Beth-aven, i.e., "the house of vanity" (4:15), on account of the
golden calves Jeroboam had set up there (1 Kings 12:28).
(2.) Translated by the LXX. "On" in Ezek. 30:17. The Egyptian
Heliopolis or city of On (q.v.).
(3.) In Amos 1:5 it denotes the Syrian Heliopolis, the modern
Avenger of blood
(Heb. goel, from verb gaal, "to be near of kin," "to redeem"),
the nearest relative of a murdered person. It was his right and
duty to slay the murderer (2 Sam. 14:7, 11) if he found him
outside of a city of refuge. In order that this law might be
guarded against abuse, Moses appointed six cities of refuge (Ex.
21:13; Num. 35:13; Deut. 19:1,9). These were in different parts
of the country, and every facility was afforded the manslayer
that he might flee to the city that lay nearest him for safety.
Into the city of refuge the avenger durst not follow him. This
arrangement applied only to cases where the death was not
premeditated. The case had to be investigated by the authorities
of the city, and the wilful murderer was on no account to be
spared. He was regarded as an impure and polluted person, and
was delivered up to the goel (Deut. 19:11-13). If the offence
was merely manslaughter, then the fugitive must remain within
the city till the death of the high priest (Num. 35:25).
a people dwelling in Hazerim, or "the villages" or "encampments"
on the south-west corner of the sea-coast (Deut. 2:23). They
were subdued and driven northward by the Caphtorim. A trace of
them is afterwards found in Josh. 13:3, where they are called
an instrument only referred to in connection with the custom of
boring the ear of a slave (Ex. 21:6; Deut. 15:17), in token of
his volunteering perpetual service when he might be free. (Comp.
Ps. 40:6; Isa. 50:5).
used in the Authorized Version of Deut. 19:5; 20:19; 1 Kings
6:7, as the translation of a Hebrew word which means "chopping."
It was used for felling trees (Isa. 10:34) and hewing timber for
building. It is the rendering of a different word in Judg. 9:48,
1 Sam. 13:20, 21, Ps. 74:5, which refers to its sharpness. In 2
Kings 6:5 it is the translation of a word used with reference to
its being made of iron. In Isa. 44:12 the Revised Version
renders by "axe" the Hebrew maatsad, which means a "hewing"
instrument. In the Authorized Version it is rendered "tongs." It
is also used in Jer. 10:3, and rendered "axe." The "battle-axe"
(army of Medes and Persians) mentioned in Jer. 51:20 was
probably, as noted in the margin of the Revised Version, a
"maul" or heavy mace. In Ps. 74:6 the word so rendered means
"feller." (See the figurative expression in Matt. 3:10; Luke
(Zech. 14:5) should perhaps be rendered "very near" = "the way
of escape shall be made easy." If a proper name, it may denote
some place near the western extremity of the valley here spoken
of near Jerusalem.
whom Jehovah helps.
(1.) Son of Ethan, of the tribe of Judah (1
(2.) Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as
high priest (1 Chr. 6:9; 1 Kings 4:2) in the days of Solomon. He
officiated at the consecration of the temple (1 Chr. 6:10).
(3.) The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah
and Asa (2 Chr. 6:10, 11).
(4.) High priest in the reign of Uzziah, king of Judah (2
Kings 14:21; 2 Chr. 26:17-20). He was contemporary with the
prophets Isaiah, Amos, and Joel.
(5.) High priest in the days of Hezekiah (2 Chr. 31:10-13). Of
the house of Zadok.
(6.) Several other priests and Levites of this name are
mentioned (1 Chr. 6:36; Ezra 7:1; 1 Chr. 9:11; Neh. 3:23, etc.).
(7.) The original name of Abed-nego (Dan. 1:6, 7, 11, 16). He
was of the royal family of Judah, and with his other two
companions remarkable for his personal beauty and his
intelligence as well as piety.
(8.) The son of Oded, a remarkable prophet in the days of Asa
(2 Chr. 15:1). He stirred up the king and the people to a great
(Lev. 16:8, 10, 26, Revised Version only here; rendered
"scape-goat" in the Authorized Version). This word has given
rise to many different views. Some Jewish interpreters regard it
as the name of a place some 12 miles east of Jerusalem, in the
wilderness. Others take it to be the name of an evil spirit, or
even of Satan. But when we remember that the two goats together
form a type of Christ, on whom the Lord "laid the iniquity of us
all," and examine into the root meaning of this word (viz.,
"separation"), the interpretation of those who regard the one
goat as representing the atonement made, and the other, that
"for Azazel," as representing the effect of the great work of
atonement (viz., the complete removal of sin), is certainly to
be preferred. The one goat which was "for Jehovah" was offered
as a sin-offering, by which atonement was made. But the sins
must also be visibly banished, and therefore they were
symbolically laid by confession on the other goat, which was
then "sent away for Azazel" into the wilderness. The form of
this word indicates intensity, and therefore signifies the total
separation of sin: it was wholly carried away. It was important
that the result of the sacrifices offered by the high priest
alone in the sanctuary should be embodied in a visible
transaction, and hence the dismissal of the "scape-goat." It was
of no consequence what became of it, as the whole import of the
transaction lay in its being sent into the wilderness bearing
away sin. As the goat "for Jehovah" was to witness to the
demerit of sin and the need of the blood of atonement, so the
goat "for Azazel" was to witness to the efficacy of the
sacrifice and the result of the shedding of blood in the taking
away of sin.
whom Jehovah strengthened.
(1.) One of the Levitical harpers in
the temple (1 Chr. 15:21).
(2.) The father of Hoshea, who was made ruler over the
Ephraimites (1 Chr. 27:20).
(3.) One who had charge of the temple offerings (2 Chr.
dug over, a town in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah (Josh.
15:35), where the five confederated Amoritish kings were
defeated by Joshua and their army destroyed by a hailstrom
(10:10, 11). It was one of the places re-occupied by the Jews on
their return from the Captivity (Neh. 11:30).
noble, a descendant of king Saul (1 Chr. 8:37; 9:43, 44).
strong as death.
(1.) One of David's thirty warriors (2 Sam.
(2.) An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David
and Solomon (1 Chr. 27:25).
(3.) A town in the tribe of Judah, near Jerusalem (Neh. 12:29;
(4.) 1 Chr. 8:36
the Grecized form (Acts 8:40, etc.) of Ashdod (q.v.).
(1.) The wife of Caleb (1 Chr. 2:18, 19).
(2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1
Azur and Azzur
(1.) The father of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jer.
(2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezek. 11:1).
(3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the
return from Babylon (Neh. 10:17).
(1.) The name appropriated to the principal male god of
the Phoenicians. It is found in several places in the plural
BAALIM (Judg. 2:11; 10:10; 1 Kings 18:18; Jer. 2:23; Hos. 2:17).
Baal is identified with Molech (Jer. 19:5). It was known to the
Israelites as Baal-peor (Num. 25:3; Deut. 4:3), was worshipped
till the time of Samuel (1 Sam 7:4), and was afterwards the
religion of the ten tribes in the time of Ahab (1 Kings
16:31-33; 18:19, 22). It prevailed also for a time in the
kingdom of Judah (2 Kings 8:27; comp. 11:18; 16:3; 2 Chr. 28:2),
till finally put an end to by the severe discipline of the
Captivity (Zeph. 1:4-6). The priests of Baal were in great
numbers (1 Kings 18:19), and of various classes (2 Kings 10:19).
Their mode of offering sacrifices is described in 1 Kings
18:25-29. The sun-god, under the general title of Baal, or "lord," was the chief object of worship of the Canaanites. Each
locality had its special Baal, and the various local Baals were
summed up under the name of Baalim, or "lords." Each Baal had a
wife, who was a colourless reflection of himself.
(2.) A Benjamite, son of Jehiel, the progenitor of the
Gibeonites (1 Chr. 8:30; 9:36).
(3.) The name of a place inhabited by the Simeonites, the same
probably as Baal-ath-beer (1 Chr. 4:33; Josh. 19:8).
(1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29),
elsewhere called Balah (Josh. 19:3) and Bilhah (1 Chr. 4:29).
Now Khurbet Zebalah.
(2.) A city on the northern border of the tribe of Judah
(Josh. 15:10), called also Kirjath-jearim, q.v. (15:9; 1 Chr.
13:6), now Kuriet-el-Enab, or as some think, 'Erma.
(3.) A mountain on the north-western boundary of Judah and Dan
a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:44). It was fortified by
Solomon (1 Kings 9:18; 2 Chr. 8:6). Some have identified it with
Bel'ain, in Wady Deir Balut.
Baalah of the well, (Josh. 19:8, probably the same as Baal,
mentioned in 1 Chr. 4:33, a city of Simeon.
called by the Greeks Heliopolis i.e., "the city of the sun",
because of its famous Temple of the Sun, has by some been
supposed to be Solomon's "house of the forest of Lebanon" (1
Kings 7:2; 10:17; 2 Chr. 9:16); by others it is identified with
Baal-gad (q.v.). It was a city of Coele-Syria, on the lowest
declivity of Anti-Libanus, about 42 miles north-west of
Damascus. It was one of the most splendid of Syrian cities,
existing from a remote antiquity. After sustaining several
sieges under the Moslems and others, it was finally destroyed by
an earthquake in 1759. Its ruins are of great extent.
covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after
the death of Gideon (Judg. 8:33; 9:4). In 9:46 he is called
simply "the god Berith." The name denotes the god of the
covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites,
contrary to the command of Jehovah (Ex. 34:12), when they began
to fall away to the worship of idols.
Baale of Judah
lords of Judah, a city in the tribe of Judah from which David
brought the ark into Jerusalem (2 Sam. 6:2). Elsewhere (1 Chr.
13:6) called Kirjath-jearim. (See BAALAH.)
lord of fortune, or troop of Baal, a Canaanite city in the
valley of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon, hence called
Baal-hermon (Judge. 3:3; 1 Chr. 5:23), near the source of the
Jordan (Josh. 13:5; 11:17; 12:7). It was the most northern point
to which Joshua's conquests extended. It probably derived its
name from the worship of Baal. Its modern representative is
Banias. Some have supposed it to be the same as Baalbec.
place of a multitude, a place where Solomon had an extensive
vineyard (Cant. 8:11). It has been supposed to be identical with
Baal-gad, and also with Hammon in the tribe of Asher (Josh.
19:28). Others identify it with Belamon, in Central Palestine,
lord of grace.
(1.) A king of Edom, son of Achbor (Gen. 36:38,
39; 1 Chr. 1:49, 50).
(2.) An overseer of "the olive trees and sycomore trees in the
low plains" (the Shephelah) under David (1 Chr. 27:28).
having a courtyard, or Baal's village, the place on the borders
of Ephraim and Benjamin where Absalom held the feast of
sheep-shearing when Amnon was assassinated (2 Sam. 13:23).
Probably it is the same with Hazor (Neh. 11:33), now Tell' Asur,
5 miles north-east of Bethel.
lord of Hermon.
(1.) A city near Mount Hermon inhabited by the
Ephraimites (1 Chr. 5:23). Probably identical with Baal-gad
(2.) A mountain east of Lebanon (Judg. 3:3). Probably it may
be the same as Mount Hermon, or one of its three peaks.
my lord, a title the prophet (Hos. 2:16) reproaches the Jewish
church for applying to Jehovah, instead of the more endearing
title Ishi, meaning "my husband."
plural of Baal; images of the god Baal (Judg. 2:11; 1 Sam. 7:4).
king of the Ammonites at the time of the Babylonian captivity
(Jer. 40:14). He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah who had been
appointed governor over the cities of Judah.
lord of dwelling, a town of Reuben (Num. 32:38), called also
Beth-meon (Jer. 48:23) and Beth-baal-meon (Josh. 13:17). It is
supposed to have been the birth-place of Elisha. It is
identified with the modern M'ain, about 3 miles south-east of
lord of the opening, a god of the Moabites (Num. 25:3; 31:16;
Josh. 22:17), worshipped by obscene rites. So called from Mount
Peor, where this worship was celebrated, the Baal of Peor. The
Israelites fell into the worship of this idol (Num. 25:3, 5, 18;
Deut. 4:3; Ps. 106:28; Hos. 9:10).
Baal having rents, bursts, or destructions, the scene of a
victory gained by David over the Philistines (2 Sam. 5:20; 1
Chr. 14:11). Called Mount Perazim (Isa. 28:21). It was near the
valley of Rephaim, west of Jerusalem. Identified with the modern