By Charles H. Welch
WITH The word ‘with’ is a preposition, a part of speech originally prefixed to a verb to modify its meaning. The preposition ‘with’ indicates: (1) Opposition and derived notions, as in the phrases ‘battle with’ ‘compete with’, ‘go to law with’, and (2) Personal relation, agreement, association, union, etc. (3) Instrumentality, causation, agency, i.e. ‘to build with bricks’. While it can be said of all prepositions ‘prepositions alter propositions’ e.g., it makes all the difference between life and death to be ‘in’ or ‘out of’ Christ, the preposition ‘with’ is of exceptional importance in the opening up of certain distinctive features of Dispensational Truth. Before this can be examined, however, we must face the fact that the word ‘with’, representing as it does a wide variety of meanings, will probably translate more than one word in the original. Confining ourselves to the Greek New Testament we discover upon examination, that the English word ‘with’ represents no less than fifteen separate words, to say nothing of three passages where it translates merely the case of a noun or a combination of words. We do not intend examining the whole fifteen words which are so translated, although for the benefit of the reader we will give an example of one or two references where the particular word is rendered ‘with’. Apo ‘from’ (Luke 15:16;16:21). Dia ‘through’ (a) with Genitive. ‘through’ as the instrument (2 John 12). (b) with Accusative. ‘through’ as the cause (Rom. 14:15). Eis ‘into’ ‘with a view to’, or ‘up to’ (Eph. 3:19). Ek ‘out of’ source or origin (Mark 12:30). En ‘in’ or ‘by’ (Matt. 3:11; 26:52). Epi ‘upon’ (a) with Dative -- condition (Matt. 18:26). (b) with Accusative -- direction (Heb. 8:8). Hama ‘at some time with’ (Matt. 13:29). Hupo ‘under’ The agent or cause (Matt. 8:24; Acts 17:25). Kata ‘down’ or ‘against’ comparison (Mark 1:27; 1 Cor. 2:1). Meta ‘in common’ association (Matt. 1:23; 9:11). Para ‘alongside of’ estimation (Rom. 2:11; 1 Cor. 3:19). Peri ‘concerning’ about (Mark 10:41; Phil. 2:23). Pros ‘towards’ closest intercommunion (John 1:1). Sun ‘united with’ fellowship (Rom. 6:8; Eph. 3:18). Echo ‘to have’, the participle ‘having’ (Acts 27:39). The word that we are here interested in is sun, but as we often understand a term the better after we have compared it with others, we will first give our attention to the meaning and use of meta, especially in its association with Christ and His people. Meta ‘with’ is a preposition of association, and not of actual oneness. It consequently is sometimes translated ‘among’ and ‘after’, indicating association rather than union. When the angel said ‘Why seek ye the living among the dead?’ (Luke 24:5) the word ‘among’ is meta. There can be no idea of ‘union’ with the dead read into this question. When we read that the Lord was ‘with’ the wild beasts while enduring the forty days testing in the wilderness (Mark 1:13), it is ‘association’ not ‘unity’ that is implied. It will be remembered that Aristotle named a treatise ‘Physics’ and followed it by a second which he called ‘Metaphysics’, those things that follow, and go beyond the range of mere physical science. Meta means ‘with’, but with, in association with, in a series, not with, in union and oneness. At the Incarnation, God was manifested in the flesh, but even though He was perfect Man, that did not make all mankind ‘one’ with God, for He was Perfect Man, sinless, holy, harmless, undefiled, and so ‘separate from sinners’ not ‘one’ with sinners. The very Incarnation that brought Him so near to man, emphasized the gulf that existed, and which was not bridged by the fact of His human birth. The good Samaritan came where the wounded man was, and he showed what the word ‘neighbour’ implied, but the good Samaritan did not, and could not, take the place of the wounded man; he could not be ‘wounded for’ him, and in this lies the problem which we are now facing. Consequently we are prepared for a further movement by the God of all grace. In Philippians 2, we see the Lord coming down from the heights of equality to the ‘form of a slave’ and the ‘fashion as a man’, down beyond incarnation to ‘death, even the death of the cross’. It is here where true union begins and the exactness of Scripture in its choice of prepositions is demonstrated. In Mark 15:28 we arrive at the last use of ‘meta’ so far as the Person and Work of Christ is concerned, until after His resurrection; He was numbered ‘with’ the transgressors. The verse which precedes this passage in Mark introduces the new preposition sun ‘together with’ in the statement ‘and With Him they crucify two thieves’ (Mark 15:27). Meta indicates ‘proximity’ but sun indicates ‘conjunction’ and implies something in common, union, and the compound verb sustauroo ‘to crucify with’ meets us for the first time (Matt. 27:44; Mark 15:32; John 19:32). And be it noted, the same word sustauroo is used by the apostle Paul to indicate the first of a series of links that unites the believer for ever with His Lord. ‘I am crucified with Christ’ (Gal. 2:20). ‘Our old man is crucified with Him’ (Rom. 6:6). At the birth at Bethlehem, Christ became Emmanuel ‘God with us’, where meta indicates the limits of this blessed proximity of God to man, but at the cross, the believing sinner becomes one ‘with Christ’ and now the preposition of union and oneness, sun, is employed. From this initial union there arises a wonderful doctrine found only in the epistles of Paul, the first rung of the ladder being ‘crucified with Christ’, the last being ‘manifest with Him’ in Glory. The Emmanuel aspect of Christ’s association with man was by ‘birth’, but the closer union at the cross was by ‘reckoning’. The same word is translated ‘numbered’ in Mark 15:28 and ‘reckoned’ in Luke 22:37. It is the Greek logizomai. The only way in which the holy, spotless One could be ‘one’ with sinful man was by being ‘reckoned’ so. The only way in which corrupted sinful men could be ‘one’ with Christ, was by being ‘reckoned’ so. Apart from James 2:23 and 1 Peter 5:12 and the Gospels and Acts 19:27 logizomai is found in Paul’s epistles where it occurs thirty -five times. The epistle of this ‘reckoning’ is Romans. In Romans 4:3 we read, ‘it was counted unto him for righteousness’, a reward not being ‘reckoned of grace’ but of debt, and God is seen ‘imputing’ righteousness without works, and ‘reckoning’ faith for righteousness. In Romans 6, the whole blessed teaching is found expressed in two verses: (1) The new bond of union ‘crucified With’ (Rom. 6:6). (2) The link ‘reckon ye also yourselves to be dead’ (Rom. 6:11). Because He was sinless, He could only be reckoned with, meta, sinners, but inasmuch as His sacrificial death put away our sin, we, the sinners, can be reckoned with, sun, Him, not in His birth, but in that new relationship made possible first by reckoning and then by substitution. At present our union with Christ is by reckoning only, for we are still in ourselves mortal and sinful. In resurrection, however, what is ours only by reckoning now will be ours in glorious reality. All barriers to complete union will then have gone and we shall indeed be one. There are seven rungs in this ladder of grace, commencing with the Cross and ending in Glory, that demand attention. We will arrange these seven passages in the order in which they appear in the development of the doctrine, so that the first rung in the ladder shall be the lowest on the page, the list being read upwards. (7) ‘Manifested with’, sun phaneroo Realization in glory (Col. 3:4) (6) ‘Seated with’ in sugkathizo Reckoning heavenly places (Eph. 2:6) (5) ‘Raised with’ sunegeiro Reckoning (Col. 3:1) (4) ‘Quickened with’ suzoopoieo Reckoning (Eph. 2:5) (3) ‘Buried with’ sunthapto Reckoning (Rom. 6:4) (2) ‘Dead with’ sunapothnesko Reckoning (2 Tim. 2:11) (1) ‘Crucified with’ sustauroo Reckoning (Rom. 6:6) The first six steps in this blessed ascent are taken during this life. The seventh and last step awaits the resurrection. The first six steps are taken while we are still mortal. The seventh and last step, awaits immortality. The first six steps are only ours by ‘reckoning’. The seventh and the last step is ours in ‘reality’. Not until every vestige of the old man and the old nature has gone completely can there be any ‘real’ union with the holy Son of God. During this life that union is by ‘reckoning’. When, however, the believer has actually died, the only possible ground of union with the Risen Christ is in virtue of the New Life which is the gift of God through the offering of His Son, and conferred upon the believer at the resurrection. Here at length all barriers to complete union have been dissolved, and what was hitherto enjoyed by the glorious principle of reckoning will then be enjoyed in reality. No believer has ever been actually ‘crucified with Christ’; he can be graciously ‘reckoned’ so, but no more. No believer has ever actually ‘died with Christ’; he can only die with Christ by reckoning. And so this principle of ‘reckoning’ is the first true link that is established between the Saviour and the saved. He, the sinless One, was ‘reckoned’ with transgressors so that they could be ‘reckoned’ with Him in His sacrificial work. No longer is He ‘with’ us (meta) in close association, He is One with us (sun) in a blessed and eternal union. The first three and the fifth rung of the ladder belong to the realm of doctrinal truth. Quickened, seated and manifested ‘with’ are peculiar to the Mystery and so call for exposition in this analysis. It is a common mistake when enumerating the steps that link the Cross with the future manifestation in Glory, to step from union in death with Christ, to be raised with Him, but by so doing, we omit the first great anticipatory ‘reality’. The next rung in this ladder of life is given in Ephesians 2. It is ‘quickened with Him’, this precedes being raised with Him, and is experienced here and now. The passage of Scripture that supplies our text is Ephesians 2. ‘Even when we were dead in sins, hath quickened us together with Christ’ (Eph. 2:5). The word translated ‘quickened together’ is suzoopoieo, and occurs only in Ephesians 2:5 and Colossians 2:13, its composition being obvious. The word zoopoieo to make alive, or to quicken, occurs twelve times in the Greek New Testament three of which occurrences are found in John’s Gospel, one in Peter’s first epistle, and eight in the epistles of Paul, of which seven occurrences are found in the epistles written before Acts 28, and one only afterwards. Zoopoieo is used six times in the LXX where it is set forth as the prerogative of God (Neh. 9:6) and withheld from ‘the wicked’ (Job 36:6). The way in which this word is employed by the apostle Paul, will prepare our minds for its application in Ephesians 2:5 and Colossians 2:13. (1) It is of the very nature of God as the God of our salvation, that He be believed on as ‘God that quickeneth the dead’ (Rom. 4:17). It was this faith that justified Abraham. (2) It is of the very nature of the Law and the Old Covenant, that they could neither justify nor ‘give life’ (Gal. 3:21; 2 Cor. 3:6). (3) It is of the very nature of this ‘quickening’ that it be associated with the resurrection brought in by Christ as the second man and the last Adam (1 Cor. 15:22,36 and 45). (4) It is of the very nature of the life we ‘now live in the flesh’ after having believed in the Lord Jesus Christ, that this life should be an anticipation of the future resurrection here and now, ‘but if the spirit of Him that raised up Jesus from the dead dwell in you, He that raised up Christ from the dead shall also quicken your mortal bodies by His Spirit that dwelleth in you’ (Rom. 8:11). In the two epistles Ephesians and Colossians, the word zoe ‘life’ occurs but three times. (1) ‘Alienated from the life of God’ (Eph. 4:18). The condition of all men by nature. (2) ‘Your life’. ‘our life’ (Col. 3:3,4). Here Christ is revealed as our life, this life is hid with Christ in God, and our manifestation with Him in glory will not take place until He Himself is manifested. So far we have attempted to catch the outstanding characteristics of this word, we must now come closer to its contexts in Ephesians and Colossians. The translation of Ephesians 2:1 -5 found in the A.V. and the R.V. robs the believer both of the intended association of this passage with Romans 6, and of the fact that Paul here is not speaking of the sinner’s state by nature but of the believer’s standing in grace. He is not speaking of death In sins, but of death To sins. This we must now examine and establish before we can proceed. First let us set out the Greek original so that it can be referred to by the English reader, and give a word for word literal rendering: kai humas ontas nekrous tois paraptomasin kai tais hamartiais. and you being dead to the trespasses and to the sins. The words that demand particular attention are (1) ontas ‘being’ and (2) tois ... tais ‘to’. There is no hesitation noticeable on the part of the apostle in his employment of the preposition en ‘in’, wherever its use is needed, this preposition is employed, and that repeatedly. It occurs 28 times in Ephesians 1 translated ‘at’, ‘with’, ‘in’, and ‘wherein’; and 28 times in Ephesians 2 where it is translated ‘wherein’, ‘in’, ‘among’, ‘through’, ‘at’, ‘by’ and ‘thereby’. The fact that Paul employs the preposition so frequently in these passages when set over against the other fact that he does not use the preposition in Ephesians 2:1 and 5, should at least make us pause. When the Lord desired to speak of the state of ‘being dead in sins’ the preposition en is used (John 8:21,24), and when the apostle uses the hypothetical argument of 1 Corinthians 15:17 he uses the preposition en. The reader may ask, what warrant is there in Ephesians 2:1 to use the word ‘in’ in the translation? The answer is, that the dative case, indicated by tois ... tais can sometimes indicate the need of the preposition to make sense. It may be that not every reader of these lines will be clear as to what is meant by the ‘dative case’, and we are sure that those who do will be the first to join us in our desire to make this feature as plain as our limited space will permit. First the word ‘case’. This word is not to be confused with a word of the same spelling which is derived from the Latin capio ‘to hold’, and so a case, as in the word ‘suitcase’; it is derived from the Latin casus ‘a chance’, from cado ‘to fall’. When we use the term ‘dative case’ we must remember that the nominative, or the subject of the sentence, was conceived as being upright and that other relations indicated by the genitive, the accusative and the dative, were thought of as deflections from the upright and hence called ‘cases’. It will be perceived that to speak of the nominative case is rather like saying ‘the upright deflection’! The word ‘dative’ from the Latin word dativus ‘giving’, is so named because when we say, for example ‘give me the book’ we actually mean ‘give to me the book’. ‘The fundamental conception of the dative case is juxtaposition ... hence the dative is diametrically opposed to the genitive’ (Farrar). So, the dative is employed with en ‘in’ whereas the genitive would be used with ek ‘out’. When Paul wanted to say ‘to the saints’ he wrote tois hagiois (Eph. 1:1), and when he wanted to say ‘in the saints’ he wrote en tois hagiois (Eph. 1:18). We therefore believe that the omission of en from Ephesians 2:1 and 5 is intentional, that the apostle did not speak of the unbeliever’s dreadful condition of being ‘dead in trespasses and sins’, but rather of the believer’s blessed liberation ‘being dead to trespasses and sins’. This, however, is by no means proof, so we continue. In 1 Peter 2:24 we read ‘that we, being dead to sins, should live unto righteousness’. Here the Greek reads tais hamartiais which the reader can compare with the last two words of the Greek of Ephesians 2:1 set out on page 408. It would be monstrous to translate this blessed passage in Peter ‘that you being dead in sins, should live unto righteousness’. This is not all however. The same grammatical form meets us in Romans 6 with the one difference that the word is in the singular ‘sin’ and not in the plural ‘sins’. ‘We, that are dead To sin’ te hamartia (Rom. 6:2). ‘He died Unto sin once’ te hamartia (6:10). ‘Dead indeed Unto sin’ te hamartia (6:11). It is absolutely impossible to use the words ‘in sin’ in these passages, to attempt it in verse 2 is nonsense, and in verse 10 blasphemy. Ephesians 2:1 and 5 are building upon the great teaching of Romans 6. There ‘sin’ and ‘the old man’ are in view, whereas in Ephesians ‘trespasses and sins’ are in view, thereby carrying the teaching one stage further into the practical realm along the path of complete emancipation. Before we leave Ephesians 2, we must notice the verb that is translated ‘were’ in verses 1 and 5. There is no possibility of a difference of opinion here. The word ontas is the present participle of the verb eimi, and in English reads ‘being’. One error is productive of others. When once the translation had been adopted ‘dead in sins’ it was manifestly impossible to put into the epistle of Paul ‘And you being dead in sins’ without complicating the argument and distorting the doctrine, consequently the present participle is translated ‘were’, yet two wrongs do not make a right, and the only translation that abides by the language of inspiration is that offered, ‘and you being dead to’, indicating the present condition of the believer, by grace. We must now turn to the parallel passage in Colossians 2. In the Received Text the preposition en ‘in’ is found in verse 13 which justifies the translation ‘dead in your sins’. Lightfoot’s comment is: ‘the en of the received text, though highly supported is doubtless an interpolation for the sake of grammatical clearness’. En is not found in either the Vatican or the Sinaitic manuscripts, and the Numeric New Treatment omits it. The whole of the context is against the idea that the believer’s state by nature ‘dead in sins’ is in view, but rather it is his standing in grace; he had died to these things. ‘And you, being dead (here the A.V. translate ontas correctly) to trespasses and to the uncircumcision of your flesh, hath He quickened together with Him, having forgiven you all trespasses’ (Col. 2:13). To appreciate in any measure of fulness, this passage in Colossians 2 necessitates an acquaintance with the structure of Colossians 2:4-23, some knowledge of the incipient agnosticism that was at work, and the place that philosophy, religion and rudiments occupied in the Colossian conception of the faith, but such vast themes are entirely beyond the range of the present article. (See Colossians1). To all such the believer died with Christ, and the life that he now lives ‘with’ Him, is for ever free from the bondage of all such rudimentary religion that can only operate in the realm of the flesh, but can never intrude into that newness of life into which the believer even now enters by faith in glad anticipation of the day of reality, when He Who is our Life shall be manifested, and we shall be manifested with Him in glory. It may be well to draw the attention of all readers to the following facts: (1) These wondrous ‘reckonings’, ‘crucified with’, ‘dead with’, ‘buried with’, ‘quickened with’, ‘raised with’ and ‘seated with’ are found only in Paul’s epistles to the churches, and are entirely absent from the Epistle to the Hebrews. (2) The preposition sun ‘with’ enters so little into any doctrine that the apostle taught the Hebrews, that it does not occur as a separate preposition once. (3) In combination sun occurs in twelve forms, but not one approximates in any way to the blessed teaching we are now considering. In order that every reader may have the fullest liberty of research we give these twelve combinations of sun before passing on. ‘To suffer affliction with’ sugkakoucheo (Heb. 11:25). ‘To be mixed with’ sugkerannumi (4:2). ‘To be heirs with’* sugkleronomos (11:9). ‘To be touched with’ sumpatheo (4:15;10:34). ‘To bring together’ (profit) sumphero (12:10). ‘To meet together’ sunantao (7:1,10). ‘To perish together’ sunapollumi (11:31). ‘To be bound with’ sundeo (13:3). ‘To perceive together’ (conscience) suneidesis (9:9,14). ‘To bear witness with’ sunepimartureo (2:4). ‘To end together’ sunteleia (9:26). ‘To end together’ (complete) sunteleo (8:8). * The only word of this list that is found also in Ephesians. It has a perfectly separate association however, which we will consider in its right place. In this list we have positive evidence that the apostle freely used compounds of sun, yet the absence of the very key words of Ephesians is eloquent testimony to the fact that the apostle was not dealing with the same calling. For completeness sake, therefore, we must give another list, namely of those compounds of sun, that are peculiar to the calling of Ephesians. ‘To sit together’ sugkathizo (Eph. 2:6). ‘To be heirs with’# sugkleronomos (3.6). ‘To have in common with’ sugkoinoneo (5:11). ‘To quicken together’ suzoopoieo (2:5). ‘To be compacted together’ sumbibazo (4:16). ‘To be partakers together’ summetochos (3:6). ‘To be citizens together’ sumpolites (2:19). ‘To be joined together’ sunarmologeo (2:21; 4:16). ‘That which binds together’ sundesmos (4:3). ‘To be roused together’ sunegeiro (2:6). ‘To run together’ (knowledge) sunesis (3:4). ‘That which runs together’ (understanding) suniemi (5:17). ‘To build together’ sunoikodomeo (2:22). ‘A joint -body’ sussoma (3:6). Here are fourteen compounds of sun employed in making known the truth of the Mystery, which the apostle felt no call to use when expounding the calling of the Hebrews. These are facts, whatever the deductions may be that are drawn from them, and such facts we ignore at our peril. The word in which we are specially interested at the moment is sugkathizo ‘to sit together’. ‘And when they had kindled a fire in the midst of the hall, and were set down together, Peter sat down among them’ (Luke 22:55). Our inquiry must at least embrace the following points: (1) The ordinary usage of kathizo ‘to sit’. (2) The special usage of kathizo in the epistle to the Hebrews. (3) The effect of the combination sun with kathizo. (4) The extraordinary nature of the calling thus indicated in Ephesians 2:6. The ordinary usage of kathizo. There are comparatively few occurrences of this word where the meaning is just ‘to sit’ in the sense of taking a rest; in most of the references the word is associated with the exercise of authority. (1) As a Teacher ‘When He was set’, ‘the Pharisees sit in Moses’ seat’, ‘He sat down and taught’ (Matt. 5:1; 23:2; Luke 5:3; John 8:2). (2) As a Judge ‘Pilate ... sat down in the judgment seat’. ‘I sat on the judgment seat’, ‘set them to judge’ (John 19:13; Acts 25:17; 1 Cor. 6:4). (3) On a Throne (This includes references to ‘judging’ as well as ‘kingship’). ‘When the Son of Man shall sit in the throne of His glory, ye also shall sit upon twelve thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel’ (Matt. 19:28 also see 25:31). ‘Grant that these my two sons may sit, the one on Thy right hand, and the other on the left, in Thy kingdom’ (Matt. 20:21,23). ‘He would raise up Christ to sit on His throne’ (Acts 2:30). See also Revelation 3:21 and 20:4. (4) At or on The Right Hand of God ‘He was received up into heaven, and sat on the right hand of God’ (Mark 16:19). ‘And set (Him) at His own right hand’ (Eph. 1:20). Out of the forty -four occurrences of kathizo, those listed under the headings 1, 2, 3 and 4 account for thirty, which indicates fairly clearly the special association which this idea of being seated has with the exercise of authority. The special usage of kathizo in the epistle to the Hebrews There are four occurrences of this word in Hebrews, namely 1:3; 8:1; 10:12 and 12:2, and they all speak of one act, the seating of Christ in resurrection at the right hand of God. Both the word sugkathizo, seated with, and the idea involved in the word are absent from this epistle; indeed, the very theme of the epistle forbids its use. Even though the Hebrews were bidden to ‘draw near’ with ‘boldness of entry’ into the holiest of all, the very idea that any one should ‘sit together’ there in that holy place is foreign to the whole conception of the epistle. It is not that the epistle does not stress the act of being ‘seated’ or the position at the ‘right hand’, it does, for it contains more references to this position than the whole of Paul’s remaining epistles. If it had been within the range of revealed truth to have uttered the climax doctrine of Ephesians 2:6 to the Hebrews, Paul would have done so. He was urging them on to ‘perfection’, he pointed them away to the seated Christ, and it is obvious that the calling of the Hebrews could not have included the high dignity of being ‘made to sit together’ in the heavenlies, for if it had, Paul must have said so. Therefore, any who dare to add to the words of inspiration for whatever reason, do so at their peril. The effect of the combination of ‘sun’ with ‘kathizo’ In ordinary use, the effect of the addition of sun to either kathizo or kathemai is seen in the two occurrences of the words. ‘He sat with the servants’ (Mark 14:54). ‘And were set down together’ (Luke 22:55). Both of these passages refer to the same incident. It describes the attitude of Peter on the night of the betrayal. He disassociated himself from Christ and His followers, denying any knowledge of Him with oaths and curses. By sitting with the servants, Peter intended to give the impression that he was one of them. He indeed ‘sat’ with the scornful (Psa. 1:1). The extraordinary nature of the calling thus indicated in Ephesians 2:5 ‘Hath quickened us together with Christ ... and made us sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus’ (Eph. 2:5,6). Removed from its context, the expression ‘made us sit together’ would mean no more than what we have already seen in Mark 14:54. The context, however, is a vital part of every word whether in the Bible or in everyday conversation. The three verbs must be read together. ‘He hath quickened us together with Christ’. There is no possible doubt as to the fact that the word ‘together’ here refers to the believer’s close union with Christ; it says so. This is implied, though not repeated, in the next sentence ‘He hath raised us up together (with Christ)’, for there is no meaning or truth in the idea that the believer today has been raised together with all other believers, that can only take place at the coming of the Lord, but it still retains the significance of the first verb ‘raised up together with Christ’. By all the laws of language and of common sense, the same must be true of the third verb ‘He hath made us sit together with Christ’. Two additional statements follow, both indicating sphere. ‘In heavenly places’; ‘In Christ Jesus’. At the close of the first chapter of Ephesians we learn that the Lord Jesus Christ was ‘raised’ and ‘seated’ at the Father’s right hand in the heavenly places, which are further defined as being ‘far above all’. Here is the sequel; the church is seen ‘seated together with Christ where He sits’, namely at the right hand of the Father, far above all. This is such a stupendous revelation that the reader is conscious of a momentary pause, for if it be not truth in excelsis, it approaches blasphemy. Not only is the poor outcast Gentile ‘saved by grace’ and ‘made nigh’ the serried ranks of heaven’s spiritual host, but he advances with boldness to take his place, not only far above every name that is named, but to find a seat ‘with Christ’ where He sits in heavenly places. This high glory is so exceedingly above all that the Scriptures written beforehand either taught or foreshadowed that the complete distinctiveness of the dispensation of the Mystery can be hung upon this one passage, without fear of challenge or confutation. There is nothing in the epistle to the Hebrews like it. (See Heaven2; and Heavenly Places2,6). The second term ‘in Christ Jesus’ does not belong exclusively to any one of these three terms, but to the whole The quickening together with Christ. The raising together with Christ. is all ‘in Christ Jesus’. The seating together with Christ in heavenly places. The title ‘Christ Jesus’ is exclusive to the ministry of Paul, but is never used in the epistle to the Hebrews. A consultation of the R.V. will show this, and the reader will find the R.V. alterations set out in the article Christ Jesus1. Those who have this high privilege are spoken of as being ‘faithful in Christ Jesus’ (Eph. 1:1), and the occurrences of this phrase should be pondered by every reader. Upon examination it will be seen that every passage in Ephesians that uses this exclusive title of the Lord, refers to something distinctive of the dispensation of the Mystery. We now arrive at the topmost rung of the sevenfold ladder that, commencing with the Cross, ends with Glory. We have been pursuing in these studies the upward movement which commences with ‘crucifixion with Christ’. Before we commence our study in the passage that contains our text, namely Colossians 3, let us see for ourselves what that ‘life’ is which is there said to be ‘hid with Christ in God’ and is yet to be enjoyed in reality when the believer is ‘manifested with Him in glory’. ‘Life’ is indicated as the goal at every step that we have traversed. ‘Crucified with’ (Gal. 2:20). This has life in view: ‘I am crucified with Christ: nevertheless I Live: yet not I, but Christ Liveth in me: and the Life which I now Live in the flesh, I Live by the faith of the Son of God, Who loved me, and gave Himself for me’. ‘Dead with’ (2 Tim. 2:11). This has life in view: ‘It is a faithful saying: For if we be dead with Him, we shall also Live with Him’. ‘Buried with’ (Rom. 6:4). This has life in view: ‘Therefore we are buried with Him by baptism into death: that like as Christ was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father, even so we also should walk in newness of Life’. ‘Quickened with’ (Eph. 2:5). As this contains the very word ‘life’ zao, nothing need be added to it. ‘Raised with’ (Col. 2:12). This too necessitates the gift of life. ‘Seated with’ (Eph. 2:6). This the last of three verbs used in the context that necessarily imply life, the first being ‘quickened with’ the second ‘raised with’. Every step has dealt with some obstacle to the entering in of abundant life, and here, in Colossians 3, the blessed moment of complete emancipation is brought before us: ‘For ye are dead, and your life is hid with Christ in God. When Christ, Who is our life, shall appear, then shall ye also appear with Him in glory’ (Col. 3:3,4). Three divisions of this passage present themselves for review: Your life is Hid With Christ In God. Christ, Who Is our life. Ye shall Appear With Him In Glory. The Colossians could be ‘warned’ and called upon to ‘beware’ that no man beguile them of their ‘reward’, but no warning is uttered about the possibility of losing their life. That is untouchable, it is hid with Christ in God. The apostle has said something in the first chapter of Colossians that prepares the way for this great truth: ‘For the hope which is laid up for you in heaven’ (Col. 1:5). This same expression is used in 2 Timothy 4:8, where it speaks of ‘the crown of righteousness’ that was ‘laid up’ for the apostle, and for all who have loved ‘His appearing’. While therefore we must keep the Hope and the Prize distinct, we observe that they are both ‘laid up’, and both connected with ‘His appearing’, the hope being ‘the appearing’ itself (Col. 3:1 -4), the crown being awarded to those who love that appearing. It is natural that in connection with a ‘Mystery’ certain essential elements should have been ‘hid’, otherwise the word mystery would be emptied of meaning: ‘And to make all men see what is the fellowship (dispensation R.V.) of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been Hid In God’ (Eph. 3:9). ‘Even the mystery which hath been Hid from ages and from generations, but now is made manifest to His saints’ (Col. 1:26). ‘To the acknowledgment of the mystery of God -- Christ (Revised texts); in Whom are Hid all the treasures of wisdom and knowledge’ (Col. 2:2,3). ‘Your life is Hid with Christ In God’ (Col. 3:3). These four passages which use the word ‘hid’ fall into a simple form of introverted parallelism: A Eph. 3:9. Dispensation Hid in God. B Col. 1:26,27. Mystery hid Christ in you Riches. B Col. 2:2,3. Mystery Christ in Whom hid Treasures A Col. 3:3. Life Hid in God. It will be seen that the words which relate to the hope of the church of the Mystery are in line with the peculiar nature of the dispensation with which this hope closes. We shall see how this contrasts with the hope that is entertained by other callings presently. Our second consideration, however, is what is intended by the words ‘Christ Who Is our life’. Our life is hid ‘with Christ in God’, that is one aspect of truth and a very comforting aspect it is too. Yet however great the assurance implied in the words ‘with Christ’ or ‘in God’, the next statement is even fuller and deeper. Christ Himself Is our life (Col. 3:4). The enmity occasioned by the differences that existed in the Church during the Acts of the apostles and so clearly indicated in the decrees of Acts 15 was completely removed at the coming in of the dispensation of the Mystery. This enmity was likened to the middle wall of partition that excluded the Gentile from the inner Temple, but being broken down, those both far off and nigh became one new man, so making peace. In this new unity Christ is our peace (Eph. 2:14). The very fact that the riches of the glory of the Mystery could now be proclaimed among the Gentiles, was another indication that a dispensational change had come, the barrier removed, and the outstanding warrant for such is once again Christ, among you, the hope of the glory (Col. 1:27), even though Israel were dismissed, temporarily. In addition, 1 Timothy 1:1 declares that Christ is our hope. Full participation, full assurance and full comprehension of the will of God for any dispensation may be beyond the attainment of the holiest here below, but most certainly in connection with the innermost shrine of revelation, it is Christ Himself once more Who occupies the centre. If He is our life, it necessarily follows, that while He awaits the day of manifestation, we cannot expect to be in full possession of life; the realization of our hope must coincide with His appearing. It is time, therefore, to turn to the third aspect of this truth, namely ‘the appearing with Him in glory’. The English words ‘appear’ and ‘make manifest’ are used in the A.V. as synonyms, and there are doubtless good reasons for the choice of first one and then the other word that we meet in the New Testament. It will, however, simplify our present study if we decide to use one or the other in this article, even though the decision may be exceedingly difficult for us to make, and should not be extended beyond our present quest. First let us note the different words that are translated ‘appear’ and ‘manifest’. Appear: phainomai, and the derivatives, anaphainomai, emphanizo, epiphaino, phaneros and phaneroo. These all partake of the primitive meaning of ‘shining by means of light’, leading us via the word phao to phos the ordinary word for ‘light’. Other words used in the New Testament and translated ‘appear’ are erchomai ‘come’, and optomai ‘to be seen’. Manifest: phaneroo, phaino, emphanizo, emphanes, aphanes and phanerosis, delos and ekdelos in the sense of being ‘evident’, prodelos in the sense of being evident beforehand. It will be seen by reference to Colossians 3:4, that the only words which are our immediate concern are phaino and its derivatives, and of these, one only demands a more extended examination, namely the word phaneroo, which is translated in the A.V. ‘make manifest’ nineteen times, ‘manifest’ nine times, ‘manifest forth’ once, and ‘be manifest’ twice (or thirtyone times taken together), as over against ‘declare manifestly’ once, ‘shew’ three times, and ‘shew oneself’ twice (or six times taken together), and ‘appear’ twelve times. It will be seen that the choice lies between ‘manifest’ and ‘appear’ with the balance in favour of ‘manifest’. This word is placed over against the conception of being ‘hid’, either expressed or implied, in Mark 4:22; John 3:20,21; 2 Corinthians 4:2,3; Colossians 1:26; 3:3,4. Phaneroo occurs in Colossians itself as follows: In connection with the distinctive ministry of the apostle Paul, as the steward of the dispensation of the Mystery, which up to the time of his commission as the prisoner of Jesus Christ for us Gentiles had been hid from ages and from generations, but ‘now’ when the dispensational change took place consequent upon Israel’s blindness, this Mystery was ‘made manifest to His saints’. It was in view of this trust that the apostle asked for the prayers of the Colossians on his behalf, that God would open a door of utterance, to speak the Mystery of Christ, for which he was also in bonds, that he might make it manifest as he ought to speak (Col. 1:25,26; 4:4). These references are limited to the initial revelation of the truth of the Mystery, but a future manifestation must yet be made before those who are blessed under its terms can enter into that inheritance. This time it is not the Mystery that is ‘hid’, but the life of the believer, and that life will not be manifested until Christ Himself and His Church with Him, shall be manifested in glory. Other dispensations and other callings have other phases of the one great hope in harmony with their respective spheres of blessing. Some shall inherit the earth, and the word parousia ‘coming’ is constantly employed to designate this phase of the hope. Some partake of the heavenly calling, and look for that city which hath foundations, and the words parousia and apocalypse are employed to describe their hope. Some will meet the Lord ‘in the air’; some will see Him when He descends upon the Mount of Olives, but the church of the Mystery, in keeping with their high calling, will be manifest ‘with Him In Glory’. How far the distinctions of present callings will be perpetuated into what we call ‘eternity’ is not revealed, and it is idle for us to speculate. It cannot be conceived that ‘life’ so abundant, so glorious, provided at such a cost, and manifested in such a sphere, is not destined for high and holy service. Let us, as we cast our mind back over the ‘reckonings’ that started with the Cross, now look onward by faith to this consummating ‘reality’ in the glory, and pray that some of the grace shown to us may be manifested as we press on to that wondrous day when we shall be With Him and Like Him, and that for ever. (See In Glory2).